|DIOCESE OF CLOYNEThree DORGANs are listed in this early Census:
ROMAN CATHOLIC PARISH REGISTERS
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NATIONAL LIBRARY OF IRELAND
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A return of Protestant and Papist (sic) Catholic FamiliesParish of KilshannigDiocese of CloyneCounty Cork
A return of Protestant and Papist (sic) Catholic Families
Parish of Mourneabbey
Diocese of Cloyne
Two DORGANs are listed in this early Census:
Patrick Dorgan of the townland of Turine
Darby Dorgan of the townland of Clohine
Topographical Directory of Ireland, 1837
THE COUNTY OF CORK
as described in
Lewis's Topographical Directory of Ireland, 1837
CORK (County of), a maritime county of the province of MUNSTER, and the largest in Ireland, bounded on the east by the counties of Tipperary and Waterford, on the north by that of Limerick, on the west by that of Kerry, and on the south-west, south, and south-east by St. George's Channel: it extends from 51° 12' to 52° 13' (N. Lat.), and from 9° 45' to 10° 3' (W. Lon.); and comprises, according to the Ordnance survey, 1,725,100 statute acres, of which 1,024,340 are cultivated, and 700,760 are occupied by mountains, bogs, &c. The population, in 1821, was 629,786, and in 1831, 700,359, of which latter number, 407,935 were in the East, and 292,424 in the West, Riding.The earliest inhabitants of the south-western part of this extensive territory are designated by Ptolemy Uterni or Uterini, and by other writers Iberni, Iberi, and Juerni. They occupied most of the southern part of the country subsequently called Desmond: their name and situation prove them to have been of Spanish Iberian origin, and the former, as well as that of the tribes from which they sprung, and the designation Ibernia or Hibernia, applied to the whole island even by Ptolemy, was derived from the western situation of the country which they inhabited. From Ptolemy's map it appears that the most eastern maritime part of the county in the south of Cork was, in the same age, inhabited by a people whom he called Vodice or Vodii, but who are unnoticed both by Sir James Ware and Dr. Charles O'Conor. The Coriondi, whose name still bears some affinity to the Irish appellation of this tract, were, according to Smith, the inhabitants of the middle and northern parts, particularly near the present city of Cork, and are said to have sprung from the Coritani, a British tribe occupying a tract in the eastern part of England. The ancient divisions of the country prior to the English settlements, were intricate, and at present can with difficulty be ascertained. The whole formed the southern and most important part of the petty kingdom of Cork or Desmond, which comprised also the western portion of the present county of Waterford, and all Kerry. Desmond, signifying 'South Munster," was more properly the name of only the south-western part of the principality, which was divided into three portions, of which the whole of that called Ivelagh or Evaugh, including the country between Bantry and Baltimore, and also that called Bear, lying between Bantry and the Kenmare river, are included in the modern county of Cork. Bear still partly retains its ancient name, being divided into the baronies of Bear and Bantry; but Evaugh is included in the barony of West Carbery, which, with East Carbery, Kinalmeaky, and Ibawn or Ibane and Barry-roe, anciently formed an extensive territory, deriving its name from its chieftain, Carbry Riada, and in which are said to have been settled four of the eight families of royal extraction in Munster, the head of one of which was McCarty Reagh, sometimes styled prince of Carbery. Kerrycurrihy was anciently called Muskerry Ilane, and comprised also the barony of Imokilly, on the north side of Cork harbour: the only maritime territory remaining unnoticed, viz. Kinnalea, was formerly called Insovenagh. Besides Kerrycurrihy and Imokilly, the entire central part of the county, between the rivers Lee and Blackwater, formed a portion of the ancient territory of Muskerry, which name the western portion of it still retains. The north-western extremity of the county, forming the present barony of Duhallow, is in some old writings called Alla and Dubh Alla; and its chief, who, to a very late period, enjoyed almost regal authority, was sometimes styled prince of Duhallow. The remainder, to the north of the Blackwater, formed, before the English conquests, a principality of the O'Keefes, called Fearmuigh.Henry II., about the year 1177, granted to Robert Fitz-Stephen and Milo de Cogan the whole kingdom of Cork, except the city and the cantred belonging to the Ostmen settled there, which he retained in his own hands; but they were unable to take possession of more than seven cantreds lying nearest the city, receiving tribute from the other twenty-four. They introduced other Anglo-Norman families and their retainers; and the military colony thus established was never completely uprooted. Cork was one of the districts erected into a county by King John, and the English power was gradually extended by the divisions arising from female inheritance and inferior grants; large tracts of country were successively held by the Carews, De Courcys, and other families, of whom the former, who were styled Marquesses of Cork, built the castle of Donemark, in the western part of the county, and others in Imokilly, for protection against the natives. The chief men of this family, with many other English settled here, removed into England on the breaking out of the civil war between the houses of York and Lancaster; while De Courcy, who remained, besides divesting himself of some of his possessions, which he gave in marriage with his daughters, lost a considerable portion by the superior power of the natives. The English were thus greatly reduced both in numbers and power, and were subsequently further weakened by the usurping measures of the Earls of Desmond, to whom Robert Fitz-Geoffry Cogan granted all his lands in Ireland, including one-half of Cork; but the whole was forfeited by the attainder of the last Earl, in 1582. This induced the settlement of new colonies of the English; for although a considerable portion was regranted to the Fitz-Geralds and other resident families, the rest of the forfeitures was divided in seigniories and granted by letters patent to several English gentlemen, who were called undertakers, from being bound to perform the conditions mentioned in the articles for the plantation of this province with English, who were consequently settled here in great numbers, especially by Sir Richard Boyle, afterwards created Earl of Cork. In the Spanish invasion of 1600, this county was wholly the scene of operations, particularly in the vicinity of Kinsale. During the civil war which broke out in 1641, the bands of trained English contributed much to the maintenance of British interests here, which, however, were greatly weakened by these commotions, until in a great measure renewed towards the period of the Restoration by the settlement of republican officers, soldiers, and adventurers; and the Protestant inhabitants of English descent again proved their strength by the most active and important services in 1691.This large county contains the whole of the united dioceses of Cork, Ross, and Cloyne, and about 28,800 plantation acres of that of Ardfert and Aghadoe. By the statute of the 4th of Geo. IV., cap. 93, it was divided, for the more frequent holding of general sessions of the peace, into two districts, called the East and West Ridings: the former comprises the baronies of Duhallow, Orrery and Kilmore, Condons and Clongibbons, Fermoy, Kinnatalloon, Imokilly, Kerrycurrihy, Kinnalea, Barrymore, Barretts, and East Muskerry (with the exception of the parishes of Ahinagh and Aghabologue), together with the liberties of the city of Cork and of Kinsale: the West Riding is composed of the baronies of Ibane and Barryroe, Beer or Bear, Bantry, West Muskerry, Kinalmeaky, Courcies, East Carbery (east and west divisions), and West Carbery (east and west divisions), with the two parishes of Ahinagh and Aghabologue, in the barony of East Muskerry. Besides the city of Cork, which, with an extensive surrounding district forms a county of itself, it contains the borough, market, and sea-port towns of Youghal and Kinsale; the borough and market-towns of Bandon and Mallow; the sea-port and market-towns of Cove and Bantry; the market and post-towns of Fermoy, Skibbereen, Macroom, and Dunmanway; the ancient disfranchised boroughs of Baltimore, Castlemartyr, Charleville, Clonakilty, Doneraile, Midleton, and Rathcormac, all of which, except the first, are post-towns; the post-towns of Ballincollig, Buttevant, Castletown-Bearhaven, Castletown-Roche, Cloyne, Innishannon, Kanturk, Kildorrery, Kilworth, West Millstreet, Mitchelstown, Passage, and Rosscarbery; and the small towns of Castle-Lyons, Crook-haven, Liscarrol, and Timoleague. Prior to the Union it sent twenty-four members to the Irish parliament, being two for the county at large, and two for each of the boroughs, besides the two for the county of the city of Cork. At present it sends to the Imperial parliament two representatives for the county at large, two for the city of Cork, and one each for the boroughs of Bandon, Kinsale, Mallow, and Youghal. The recent enactments have made no alteration in the number of representatives, but have constituted each riding a separate jurisdiction for the purposes of registry: the county members are elected at the court-house in the city of Cork. The total number of voters registered up to March, 1836, was 4394, of which 1179 were £50, 532 £20, and 1828 £10 freeholders; 158 £20, and 639 £10 leaseholders, and 23 £50, and 35 £20 rent-chargers. The county is included in the Munster circuit: the assizes are held in the city of Cork; and by the act of the 4th of Geo. IV., it is enacted that five general sessions of the peace shall be holden in alternate months in each of the two ridings, so that in the county at large a session is held every month, except the two in which the general sessions are holden for the entire county: the sessions for each division are directed to be holden, for the East Riding, alternately in the city of Cork, and at Midleton, Fermoy, Mallow, and Kanturk; and for the West Riding, alternately at Bandon, Macroom, Bantry, Skibbereen, and Clonakilty; the precise days to be settled by the high sheriff, the two assistant barristers, and the clerk of the peace. In all processes connected with these sessions, the several divisions are to be carefully distinguished as Cork County East Riding, and Cork County West Riding; but with the exception of the power given to the lord-lieutenant to appoint an assistant barrister for each, with a salary equal to that of similar officers in entire counties, the officers and jurisdictions of the county are not in any manner altered from those which are customary. In the city of Cork are the county gaol and house of correction, rules for the management of which were drawn up by a committee of the magistrates in 1816, which were afterwards embodied in the general act for the prisons of Ireland. There are, besides, seventeen bridewells, situated respectively at Midleton, Bandon, Clonakilty, Skibbereen, Bantry, Dunmanway, Macroom, Mitchelstown, Fermoy, Mallow, Cove, Kinsale, Rosscarbery, Millstreet, Kanturk, Youghal, and Charleville. The number of persons charged with criminal offences and committed to the county prison in 1835, was 740. The local government is vested in a lord-lieutenant, 16 deputy-lieutenants, and 282 other magistrates; besides whom there are the usual county officers, including four coroners. The constabulary force consists of 16 chief and 85 subordinate constables, and 426 men, with 17 horses, the expense of maintaining which is defrayed equally by Grand Jury presentments and by Government. The coast-guard districts are those of Youghal, containing the stations of Helwick Head, Ardmore, Youghal, Knockadoon, and Ballycotton; Cove, containing the stations of Ballycroneen, Poor Head, Lighthouse, East Ferry, Cove, Cork, Crosshaven, and Robert's Cove; Kinsale, containing the stations of Upper Cove, Oyster Haven, Old Head, Howshand, Courtmasherry, Barry's Cove, Dunny Cove, and Dirk Cove; Skibbereen, containing the stations of Milk Cove, Glandore, Castle-Townsend, Barlogue, Baltimore, Long Island, Crook Haven, Dunmanus, and Whithorse; and Castletown, containing the stations of Colaris, Garnish, and Castletown: the entire force consists of 5 inspecting commanders, 32 chief officers, and 251 men. The public charitable institutions are the lunatic asylum, house of industry and infirmary at Cork, an infirmary at Mallow, 12 fever hospitals, and 48 local dispensaries, maintained partly by subscription and partly by grand jury presentments: the dispensaries are situated respectively at Mitchelstown, Millstreet, Castletown-Roche, Bandon, Ovens, Ballyneen, Newmarket, Kanturk, Cloyne, Rosscarbery, Timoleague, Charleville, Buttevant, Kildorrery, Dunbullogue, Whitechurch, Kinsale, Glanworth, Fermoy, Glenville, Midleton, Bantry, Ballyclough, Skibbereen, Rathcormac, Glandore, Innishannon, Donoughmore, Doneraile, Glanmire, Carrigaline, Clonakilty, Dunmanway, Cove, Kilworth, Ballydehob, Passage, Macroom, Castletown-Bearhaven, Inniscarra, Conna, Castlemartyr, Magourney, Crookstown, Ballymacoda, Blarney, Glauntain, and Water-grass Hill. The total amount of the county Grand Jury presentments, for 1835, was £62,645. 15. 8 3/4., of which £6978. 19. 0 3/4. was for the public roads and bridges of the county at large; £17,629. 16. 5. for public roads, being the baronial charge; £21,026. 19. 5. for public establishments, officers' salaries, and buildings; £9864. 16. 6. for police, and £7145. 4. 4. for repayment of advances made by the Government. In the military arrangements the county is in the Southern District; it contains sixteen military stations, situated respectively at Ballincollig, Buttevant, Charles Fort, Clonakilty, Fermoy, (which is the principal, and the military depot of the district,) Kinsale, Mallow, Millstreet, Mitchelstown, Youghal, Skibbereen, and, in Cork Harbour, at Spike Island, Camden Fort, Carlisle Fort, Rocky Island, and Hawlbowling Island; and affording barrack accommodation in the whole, for 352 officers and 6799 men.The surface of the county is of considerable variety and much natural beauty, but exhibits a very great deficiency of timber, and of hedge rows and plantations. The western part is bold, rocky, and mountainous; while the northern and eastern portions are distinguished for their richness and fertility. But even in this irregularity some order is perceived, the ranges of high land stretching nearly in the direction of east and west, though several ranges of hills branch off in transverse directions. The principal deviation from this general character is seen in the Bogra mountains, forming a high and barren tract in the centre of the county, between the rivers Lee and Blackwater, and which, instead of rising into narrow summits, spread out into an ample area, having in some places a deep boggy surface. The great longitudinal ranges of high ground are likewise often intersected by deep glens and gullies, through which numerous small streams find a rapid descent, and, after heavy rains, form beautiful waterfalls. The western mountains differ from the rest in form and aspect, being far more rocky, bold, and sterile, and abruptly parted by gaps and fissures. The entire south and south-western portions of the county are composed of stupendous masses of schistose rock, standing as barriers against the waves of the Atlantic, which, for the greater part of the year, are driven with fury against them by the force of the prevailing winds. Of low grounds, the most extensive tracts are those in which limestone is found: the largest is in the northern part of the county, lying north of the Blackwater, and extending upwards of twenty miles in length from east to west, varying in breadth from five to nine. This rich and beautiful expanse of country, though comparatively flat, is, however, agreeably diversified with gentle elevations, and contains but little land forming a dead level. By far the greater part of the county, excepting its western portion, has a similar undulating character; even the mountains are little more irregular in their outlines than the lower grounds, and the transition from one to the other is by very gentle degrees. The limestone vale, in which part of the city of Cork is situated, commences at Castlemore, about 10 miles to the west of it; and though at first of inconsiderable breadth, on crossing Cork harbour and reaching Imokilly, it takes a wider range, and throughout its course to the sea presents a fine tract of the best cultivated ground in the county. The line of coast presents a series of magnificent headlands, separated from each other by numerous inlets forming safe and commodious harbours, of which the most noted are those of Youghal, Cork, Kinsale, Baltimore, Crookhaven, Dunmanus, and Bantry, in the last of which, surrounded by the majestic scenery of the western mountains, whole navies may ride in safety. The numerous estuaries, disclose at low water, rich banks of calcareous sand for manure, and afford access to the interior of the country by navigation. On the southwestern coast are various small, rocky islands, of which the principal are Cape Clear and Innisherkin, near the harbour of Baltimore; Bear island and Whiddy island, in Bantry bay; and Dursey island, off the extremity of Bearhaven promontory, forming the most western extremity of the county. In the mountainous parts of the district are several small lakes, among which are those of Cahir, near Glengariffe; others on Three-Castle Head: that of Loughbofinny, near Bantry; and those of Shepperton; three between Bantry and Dunmanway, and the interesting lake of Googane-Barra, with smaller sheets of water at Rathbarry, Macloneigh, Ballintowlus, Drinagh, and in other parts.The climate is remarkable for the mildness of its temperature, never reaching those extremes of heat and cold to which the same degree of latitude is subject even in England. This arises from its proximity to the Atlantic, across which the prevailing winds come loaded with vapours, seldom objectionable in winter, but often intercepting the maturing rays of the summer's sun; which circumstance renders the corn raised here, though good, generally inferior to that of a drier climate. The county, however, suffers much less in this respect than the neighbouring more western counties; and its climate has been decidedly improved by the draining of bogs and swamps. The soils present no great variety, and may be distributed into four classes, each comprising several species differing in degrees of fertility, but united by a general resemblance of component parts. These are, -- 1st. The calcareous soils, or those found in the limestone tracts, which exceed all the rest in richness and fertility, producing the finest herbage and best wheat, and having always a crumbling and mellow surface. -- 2nd. The loamy soils not calcareous, comprising the deep and mellow loams remote from limestone, occurring in several of the less elevated parts, especially towards the south, where they constitute the best lands: they are next in quality to the former, to which some of the best bear a close affinity both in texture and fertility; they generally rest on clay-slate. -- 3rd. The light and shallow soils resting upon an absorbent bottom, as gravel, or rubbly stone, which have a much shallower and less vigorous arable surface than the preceding, but commonly afford a short sweet herbage peculiarly adapted for sheep, and produce the best corn in wet seasons. -- 4th. The moorland or peat soil, the usual substratum of which is a hard rock or coarse retentive clay, and is of greater extent than any of the preceding classes, occupying both bog and mountain, and even several tracts of elevated land, which, though improved by culture, still exhibit sufficient traces of their origin: though inferior in fertility, some portions of this class may be rendered productive of good crops of grass, oats, and potatoes; but the. most elevated portions can never afford any thing better than coarse summer pasturage. Sands occur only on the sea-shore, and are most extensive in the bays of Courtmasherry, Bantry, Kinsale, Clonakilty, and Ross.The tillage, except on the demesnes of resident gentlemen, presents rather unfavourable features, owing in a great measure to the want of skill and adequate capital, the too minute subdivision of farms, and the superabundant population of the arable districts. The crop of the greatest importance, and cultivated with the greatest care, is that of potatoes, which constitute the staple food of the small farmers and the labourers: it is succeeded in the more fertile districts by wheat, for which the ground is not unfrequently manured with lime, and this is followed by one or two crops of oats. The ground is rarely levelled, properly cleared, or sown with artificial grasses, except by a few of the more opulent farmers on calcareous soils in the west and south parts of the county; barley and oats are more generally cultivated. The land held by the small farmers, or cottiers, presents an impoverished appearance, and is rarely left to recruit its productive powers by means of rest, until first exhausted by over-cropping. The cabins occupied by this class of tenants are for the most part of a wretched description. A considerable portion of the northern part of the county is appropriated to dairy farms, and is but thinly inhabited; but the land there is in good condition, and the farm-houses more comfortable than in the tillage districts. Some of the principal landowners have corrected the abuses of the cottier system, and adopted for the improvement of their estates, and the amelioration of their tenantry, the practice of letting sufficiently large farms to occupying and working tenants, and providing them with comfortable dwelling-houses and farm-offices suitable to the extent of land and the condition of the holder. The substances generally employed as manure are, common dung, lime, earth collected from the ditches, sea-sand, and sea-weed. As the beds of limestone are situated in the northern and eastern parts of the county, the farmers in the south-west are precluded from using this material, but find an abundant substitute in the calcareous sea-sand driven upon the shore, which is partly composed of pulverised marine shells in various proportions, and of which the coral sand of Bantry bay, being wholly calcareous, is most esteemed: some kinds of a red colour are also in great esteem; those of a dark blue colour seem to be composed chiefly of the fragments of muscle shells. Spade labour is generally preferred to the use of the plough, of which the prevailing kind is of very rude construction, having short and thick handles, a low beam, and the coulter and sock placed obliquely, so that in working, the mould-board is raised out of the ground; the Scotch swing plough has been introduced by the gentry and wealthy farmers in the neighbourhood of Cork and other places. Formerly hay and corn were brought from the fields on slide cars or crooks, both of which are still used in the west; but the general improvement of the roads has introduced the wheel car, which, however, is of very rude construction, consisting of little more than a pair of shafts connected by a few cross bars, and resting upon a wooden axletree fixed into small solid wheels of ash plank, and turning with them; in all the low districts the cart, or "butt," has become general. The fences contribute to the general naked appearance of the surface, being commonly formed of banks of earth dug from trenches on each side, and faced with sods or stones; they are frequently planted with furze, and occasionally with white thorn and forest trees. The cattle of the south and south-west are small, seldom weighing more than 3 1/2 cwt.; formerly they were all black, but at present the breed is mixed, and of various colours; they generally yield abundance of milk. In the baronies of Duhallow, and Orrery and Kilmore, forming the north-western portion of the county, the Leicester breed, or, as they are here commonly called, the Limerick heifers, form the stock of some of the rich dairy farms; lands of inferior quality are stocked with a mixed breed of these and the old native black cattle. Indeed the cattle of the great northern vale are altogether superior in size and form to those of the more southern and western districts; and the same may be observed of all other kinds of live stock. The Holderness, Devon, Durham, and Ayrshire breeds have also been partially introduced. There are no large flocks of sheep, except in gentlemen's demesnes; the Leicester is the prevailing breed on good soils, and the common and half-bred Irish on inferior soils. Horses, mostly black, are, in the northern portion of the county, universally employed by the common farmers: in other parts are kept great numbers of mules of a small size, which are occasionally employed in draught, but chiefly for back loads; and being easily fed, very long lived, and able to endure great fatigue, are well adapted to the purposes of a poor peasantry in a rough country. Of the extensive woods with which this county was once adorned, numerous vestiges are found both above and beneath the surface. Although now so denuded, the oak, birch, alder, fir, and yew, and even the ash and poplar, appear to be indigenous, and of shrubs and underwoods there seems to have been a still greater variety. The former growth of firs in this part of the island is also traced by their existence in the bogs, in which they greatly exceed in number all the rest. The mountain lands, covered with little but heath and sedgy grass, form extensive tracts of comparative waste: the bogs and marshes are chiefly confined to these elevated regions, being elsewhere of very small extent. The scarcity and dearness of fuel are in many parts very disadvantageous; the maritime towns and the richer inhabitants generally obtain coal from England; while the mass of the people are compelled to seek for peat, which in many places has been exhausted; furze is often planted to supply this grievous deficiency.The crown lands of Pobble O'Keefe are in the centre of a wild district on the confines of the counties of Limerick, Kerry, and Cork, which, until within these few years, had been neglected and deserted, and was nearly inaccessible for want of roads. They are estimated to contain about 9000 statute acres of undulating hilly country, the soil of which varies from a strong clay to a loamy gravel and sand on the higher grounds, with tracts of alluvial land rind peat bog in the valleys and along the bottoms. The Crown is at present in actual possession of 5000 acres only; the remainder being withheld by the adjacent proprietors who claim to be entitled to the inheritance. When these lands were surrendered to the Crown they were inhabited by about 70 families residing in miserable mud cabins, the only buildings then on the property, subsisting almost entirely on the deteriorated produce of a few acres of potatoe tillage, and depending on the produce of a few cows and their harvest labour in the adjoining district for the payment of their rent. With every local facility for drainage, the lands were saturated with water, and covered with thick matted beds of moss, rushes, and heath, the growth of ages. Under these circumstances, Mr. Weale, who was deputed to survey the estate, suggested to the Commissioners of Woods and Forests that the Crown, instead of reletting or selling, should retain possession of the property, render this wild district accessible by the construction of proper roads, and cause its natural resources to be made available for ameliorating the condition of its inhabitants; and thus foster a numerous body of loyal, contented, and prosperous peasantry. Mr. Weale's benevolent suggestions have been acted upon, and under the superintendence of Mr. Griffith, the government engineer, an excellent road has been constructed from Roskeen Bridge on the Blackwater, about seven British miles above Mallow, by the collieries of Coolclough, Dromagh, and Clonbanin through the village of Boherbee, and the centre of the Crown estate, and, crossing the Blackwater near its source, it extends to Castleisland in the county of Kerry; another branching off from Clonbanin also crosses the Blackwater and extends to Shanogh Cross in the same county, where it forms the mail road from Cork to Killarney. The former line is 33 1/2 British miles in length, and forms a direct communication between Tralee and Cork; the latter measures 9 3/4 miles, and forms an equally direct communication between Killarney and Mallow. These roads have been executed chiefly at the expense of Government, who advanced £17,000 of the gross estimate of £24,987; the remainder, £7937, was presented by the Grand Juries of Cork and Kerry. The roads are completed, with the exception of a portion of the line between Castleisland and King-William's-Town, which is expected to be speedily finished. The general improvement of this district already affords a striking contrast to its utterly neglected state previously to their formation. The new village, called "King-William's-Town," on the east bank of the Blackwater, on the road to Castleisland, with the various improvements made by Government in its vicinity, is described under that head. The geological divisions may be classed under four principal heads. The calcareous districts comprise the greater part of the vale to the north of the Blackwater, and of the vale south-west of Cork, the vale of Imokilly extending from Midleton to Killeagh, and the vale of the Bride from Rathcormac to Tallow. Detached beds of this formation are to be met with at Moylan and Taur, near Newmarket, at Blarney, near Macroom, near Bantry, at Timoleague, at Skibbereen, and near Cloyne. It also forms the Barrel rocks on the coast near Youghal. The marble presents a great variety of colours, and is for the most part close-grained and susceptible of a good polish. That raised near Cork is grey, with white veins; that near Castle Hyde is of a darker hue, embellished with various shades and a rich display of shells. A very beautiful species is found near Castlemartyr. The district bordering on Kerry and Limerick forms a portion of the great southern coal field, many parts of which contain valuable beds of non-flaming coal, similar to that of Kilkenny, and of culm much used for burning lime. It extends from the north-western boundary of the county to the river Awbeg, running west of that river and north of the Blackwater, and lying chiefly between the limestone district and the last named river. The principal collieries, and the most important in the south of Ireland, are in the valley of the Blackwater, where beds of coal and culm are found running parallel with each other. The largest now worked is that of Dromagh, in the barony of Duhallow, 22 miles from Cork, and the property of Nicholas Leader, Esq. This colliery has been worked uninterruptedly for nearly a century; a large capital has been expended in useful works connected with it within the last fifteen years, and it is now in excellent order and capable of supplying, any demand. The second division includes the mountains on the western confines of the county, and the two extensive ranges enclosing the great calcareous vale on the north side of the Blackwater, one on the north and the other on the south. The northern range is of the grauwacke formation, and is composed of various beds of red, green, and grey schist and sandstone. The mountains which separate Bantry bay from the Kenmare estuary are composed of beds of schist and sandstone of various colours, but similar in their composition to the grauwacke formations of other parts of the county. The eastern mountains have generally a thick covering of clay mixed with small stones, while those of the west are more bare and rocky: indications of iron are more or less visible in all. The third great district is that of the clay-slate, locally known as the brown and red stone, which prevails in all the middle and northern parts of the county not. included in either of the above-named divisions, and which first occurs on the south on a line forming the southern boundary of the limestone district of Cork, from the western mountains eastward. To the north of the city, this stone occupies the whole of the great elevated tract between the vale of Cork and the Blackwater: though commonly of shades of red, it has some other varieties of colour as well as of texture: it affords good building stone and flags, but will not split into laminae sufficiently thin for roofing. The last division is that of the clay-slate, called also grey-stone, the epithet grey being indicative of the prevailing hue of the rocks, the colours of which really vary considerably. It comprehends by far the greater portion of the remainder of the county, lying to the south of the vale of Cork, and contains several kinds of argillite, some of grit, a few strata of calcareous schist and a large proportion of slate. The numerous quarries along the southern coast supply Cork and most parts of the northern districts with slates for roofing, some of a good kind, but the best of a quality inferior to those imported from Wales. Extensive quarries of excellent slate have, however, been lately opened near Skull, and others at Nohaval, Ringabella, and some other places. Large pieces of quartz, generally of a circular form, and sometimes weighing three or four cwt., are frequently found lying on the surface of the ground; and near Ross there is a very curious and remarkable rock composed entirely of white quartz. Vast numbers of grit stones, often of large size, are likewise scattered over the surface, above which the rocks in the south-western parts are seen projecting in almost every field. The dip of the strata throughout the county is in most places very rapid, and everywhere very irregular. Freestone is found on Horse island near Castle-Townsend, and in small veins in several places along the coast: extensive quarries of it are worked on the Duke of Devonshire's estate, near Bandon, and on Capt. Herrick's, near Innishannon, on which latter appear also some rocks of greenstone. Of the metallic ores, that of iron is the most abundant, and appears to have been formerly smelted to a considerable extent. Lead ore has been found in many places in small veins, generally combined with quartz; in some parts it is very productive, particularly at Annacarriga and Ringabella; the latter mines are worked on a considerable scale. Copper has also been found in abundance; the whole barony of Bear produces it more or less, and near Castletown are extensive and valuable mines worked with much spirit. There are large deposits of this ore in the parish of Skull: valuable mines are now in operation on Horse island, and on the mainland, adjoining the slate quarries at Ballydehob, from which an abundance of excellent ore is obtained. Veins of copper ore are likewise found in Kilmoe, near Crookhaven, and in several other places, but are not elsewhere worked with spirit or advantage. Manganese is abundant and very pure, particularly in the neighbourhood of Ross, the Leap, Nohaval, Castleventry, and other places, but is only worked with any degree of spirit in the parish of Kilfaughnabeg, near Leap, where it is obtained very good and in large quantities. The impregnation of two small turf bogs near Rosscarbery with particles of copper, by the agency of springs, has led to an opinion that the neighbouring mountains contain abundance of it: the turf of one of these bogs was burned, and the ashes sent to Swansea where good copper was procured from them. In Whiddy island, in Bantry bay, is found a peculiar kind of black chalk.The manufactures are various, but of trifling importance. Flannel and frieze are made in most places, some for sale, but the greater part for home use: the dyeing of the latter, chiefly of a blue colour, is carried on to a considerable extent in Carbery, and at Bandon, where a large number of hands are likewise employed in wool-combing, in the camlet and stuff trade, and in the cotton manufacture. The spinning of woollen yarn and the manufacture of camlets, stuffs, valentias, and woollen cloth of various kinds, are carried on at Blarney and Glanmire; and there is an extensive manufacture of stuffs at Cork, of calicoes at Templemartin, and of paper near Blarney, at Dripsey, and on the Bandon river near Morah: there are also iron-works near Blarney. The manufactures more immediately connected with the trade of the city of Cork, which, however, are unimportant as compared with its commerce, are described in the account of the city. The inhabitants of the maritime districts derive a principal means of support from fishing, frequently procuring not only enough for their own families, but a surplus for sale: the principal fish is hake, the season for taking which is from July to November. A singular kind of fishery is carried on during the months of Sept. and Oct. in the strands of Ross and Castlefreke, where the inhabitants of the neighbourhood assemble, when the tide is low, and dig out of the sand great numbers of a choice and peculiar kind of small eel, which are sold in the markets of Clonakilty and Ross. Clonakilty and Courtmasherry strands also supply this fish, but less plentifully; and likewise afford great quantities of cockles and muscles. The commerce of the county consists in the exportation of a great portion of its agricultural produce, and the importation of coal and other commodities for the ordinary supply of the inhabitants.The principal river is the Blackwater, which, rising in the mountains on the confines of Kerry, runs southward along the western border of this county to the vicinity of Millstreet, where it suddenly turns eastward, and after a course of many miles, passing Mallow, Fermoy, &c, enters the county of Waterford, after a short course through which it returns to that of Cork at its most eastern extremity, where it forms the harbour of Youghal. Owing to the rapidity of its current this noble river is navigable scarcely higher than the reach of the tide; but few others present a greater variety of beautiful scenery, having on one side a range of lofty mountains, and on the other a wide tract of fertile country, both adorned by fine plantations and forming a striking and agreeable contrast. The river Lee also has its source on the confines of Kerry, in a lake called Gougane-Barra, encompassed by wild and rocky mountains: after a course of about thirty miles eastward it reaches Cork, through which city it. flows in two channels, and becomes navigable for vessels of considerable burden on meeting the tide: below Cork it soon expands into a wide estuary, in which are several considerable islands, on the largest of which stands the modern town of Cove. The course of this river until it reaches the vale of Carrigdrohid, is very irregular, through hills exhibiting much variety, but no scenery approaching in luxuriance to that of the Blackwater; but here and below Cork it rivals the most celebrated rivers, in the winding variety of its channel and the cultivated richness of its shores. The Bandon has its source in the Owen mountain above Dunmanway and runs eastward through the town of Bandon, and by the beautiful village of Innishannon to Kinsale, of which place it forms the harbour. The Ilen also rises in the same mountains, and runs nearly southward to the town of Skibbereen, where it increases in size on meeting the tide, and forms the harbour of Baltimore. Among the small streams, which are exceedingly numerous, may be noticed the Awbeg, tributary to the Blackwater, and celebrated under the poetic name of "the gentle Mulla," by Spenser, who resided at Kilcolman castle in its vicinity. The only valuable fish in the rivers is salmon, of which the Blackwater affords the greatest abundance, while those of the Lee are distinguished for their superior quality, and are always in season: eels and trout are found in all, pike and perch only in a few. Their general rapidity renders the number of advantageous sites for the erection of mills very great; and boulting-mills are particularly numerous on their banks. This county has no canals; some have been proposed, but none executed, and only one begun, viz., that designed to extend from Mallow to the Duhallow coal-pits, but which has long been abandoned. The roads, which were in a very bad state, have been much improved since the commencement of the present century by sums originally furnished for the most part by Government, but ultimately repaid by Grand Jury presentments, and several new lines have been constructed. The turnpike trusts, which are very few, are partly vested in trustees, and partly in the hands of contractors.Stone circles, cromlechs (commonly called Druids' altars), raths or circular mounds of earth, caves, and stone pillars, are numerous, particularly raths. Near Clonakilty is a remarkable stone circle: close to the church is an ancient pillar, formed of a single stone, and in the vicinity an artificial cave. In the neighbourhood of Ross is an imperfect circle of smaller diameter than the preceding, and near it a cromlech, and an upright stone of the same kind as those composing the circle. In the mountains of Clondrohid is a spacious circle; at Ring, near Clonakilty, the remains of another; and fragments of several may be seen in different parts of the county. Near Glanworth is a monument of extraordinary size and form, called in Irish Labacolly, or the "witches' bed." In the demesne of Castlemary, near Cloyne, are the remains of a similar monument. At Rosscarbery are caves of much greater extent than that near Clonakilty. Another subterraneous vault has been discovered in the Great island in Cork harbour, between Cove and Cuskinny. There are also large caves at the Ovens, about seven miles westward from the city of Cork. Many of the raths have vaults or caves, the entrances to which lie on the eastern side, and which, after winding for some distance, terminate in a small square room in the centre. A very large rath of stone may be seen on the hill of Knockdrummon, above Castletown; and there are several of similar construction in the rocky parish of Ballyvourney. The cairns and barrows are commonly met with near waters or bogs. Of ancient round towers there are two, one at Cloyne, the other at Kineth: the former is 102 feet high, with floors and ladders perfect from bottom to top; the latter is divided into six stories, each 11 feet 9 inches high. At various places urns have been found in tumuli; and several brass trumpets were discovered in a bog between Cork and Mallow. Divers ancient remains of minor importance are still occasionally found.The number of religious houses, of the existence of which in ancient times evidences are still found in records or in ruins, was very great. Archdall enumerates no less than sixty-nine, and states that the sites of nine of these were unknown. Most of those mentioned by him were built subsequently to the first English invasion, and owed their foundation to the descendants of the English adventurers. Those of which some vestiges still exist are at Rosscarbery, Buttevant, Ballybeg, Monanimy, Timoleague, Innisharkan, Bantry, Abbey-Mahon, Abbeystrowry, Ballyvourney, Mourne, Bridgetown, Glanworth, Ballymacadam, Red Abbey in Cork, Tracton, Coole, and Youghal. Of the ancient fortresses erected by the early English invaders and their descendants the remains are very numerous, owing to their massy strength and durability: some are of a superior description, and deficient neither in magnificence nor accommodation; but by far the greater number are composed merely of a square tower or keep usually very high, to compensate for the small size of the area by the number of stories, and containing only cold and gloomy apartments: they generally occupy bold and commanding situations, and many had an enclosed area attached, flanked by smaller towers; in size there is a great disparity, some being very small and rudely built. The castle of Kanturk is of the greatest extent and magnificence: the other principal fortresses of which there are extensive remains are those of Blarney, Macroom, and Lohort, of which the first is one of the finest edifices of the kind in the kingdom. Donneen castle, though a very small structure, deserves notice for its remarkable situation in Ross bay, on a point of land forming part of the mainland at the time of its erection, but now isolated by the force of the waves. Of fortified residences of a later age, bearing some resemblance to the English mansion-houses in the Elizabethan style, there are yet remaining three, built about the year 1638, one at Monkstown, near Cork harbour; one called Castle-Long, on Oyster haven, and the third at Ballyvireen, a little to the west of Ross. The modern residences of the nobility and gentry, among which Mitchelstown Castle, the splendid mansion of the Earl of Kingston, is pre-eminently distinguished for its extent and grandeur, are noticed in the description of the parishes in which they are respectively situated. The appearance of the farm-houses seldom affords matter for commendation; though varying in size, according to the circumstances of the occupier, they are all built on the same plan, with an open chimney at one end, and at the other a small room separated by a partition and serving both as a bed-chamber and a store-room. Few farmyards are attached to the houses, and these are very small and confined: the corn being frequently stacked on circular stages supported by upright cap-stones: barns are never used for any other purpose than thrashing, and are consequently built very small: the common farmer, indeed, is often unprovided with either stage or barn, and thrashes his grain in the open air. The cabins of the poor have no glass windows and only one door, which is almost always left open to admit the light, and by which the smoke mostly escapes; an arrangement which, in bad weather, makes them very cold and uncomfortable. The general condition of the labouring poor is very wretched; a cabin and an acre of ground to plant potatoes in, generally held at forty or fifty shillings per annum, and under an obligation of working for the farmer at an extremely low rate, forms their chief means of subsistence. Almost their sole food throughout the year is potatoes, except that on the sea-coast they obtain fish, and boil different kinds of seaweed. The peasantry are nevertheless hardy, active, and lively, and generally, except in the mountain districts, speak the English language. A striking similarity in some of their customs in husbandry, and some of their agricultural terms, is observed between them and the inhabitants of the south-western English counties. The most remarkable ancient customs still preserved are, the wailing over deceased persons, the waking, and the lighting of fires on Midsummer's Eve. Among the entire population there is a considerable intermixture of English blood and English surnames; but the names of the old Irish families also remain. There are several chalybeate springs, but none of medicinal celebrity except those of Mallow, which resemble the Bristol waters in taste and temperature, and are reputed to possess the same properties.
THE CITY OF CORK
as described in
Lewis's Topographical Directory of Ireland, 1837
CORK, a sea-port, city, and a county of itself, and the head of a diocese, locally in the county of CORK, of which it is the capital, and in the province of MUNSTER 51 miles (S. W. by W.) from Waterford, and 126 (S. W. by S.) from Dublin; containing 107,007 inhabitants, of which number, S4,000 are in the city and suburbs.
This place, which in extent and importance is the second city in Ireland, and is distinguished for its fine harbour, derived its ancient names Corcach and Corcach-Bascoin, signifying in the Irish language "a marshy place," from its situation on the navigable river Lee. The earliest authentic account of its origin occurs in Colgan's life of St. Nessan, to whose preceptor, St. Barr or Finbarr, is attributed the foundation of a cathedral church, to which, as the abode of that saint, such numbers of disciples resorted from all parts, that the desert in which it stood soon became the site of a considerable city. St. Nessan, according to the annals of the four masters, died in 551: if this be correct, he could not be a disciple of St. Finbarr, unless the latter flourished at a period much earlier than that stated by Sir James Ware, namely, about the year 630. The original city was built on a limestone rock, on the margin of the south branch of the river, and appears to have grown up around the cathedral and westward as far as the monastery called Gill Abbey; but what from a very early period has been more especially regarded as the city was erected on the island formed by the Lee, and its origin is ascribed to the Danes, who, after repeatedly plundering the old city and its religious establishments for more than 300 years, settled here in 1020, but did not long retain possession, being eighteen years afterwards defeated with great slaughter, and the whole of their property destroyed by fire. In 1080 the city is said to have been destroyed by lightning; and eight years afterwards the Danes of Dublin, Waterford, and Wicklow united their forces to recover possession of it, but were defeated by a large body of the natives of Oneachach, now forming the district of West Carbery. According to other accounts, Dermot, the son of Foirdhealbhach O'Brien, in the same year, laid waste and plundered the town, and carried away the relics of St. Finbarr.
At the time of the English invasion, the city and the adjacent country were in the undisturbed possession of the Danes, who held them under Dermot Mac Carthy or Mac Carty, prince of Desmond, of which extensive territory this place was the capital. On the landing of Hen. II., in 1172, that chieftain was the first to acknowledge his sovereignty: attending his court on the day after his arrival, he resigned to the English monarch his city of Cork, and did him homage, and paid tribute for the rest of his possessions. The king immediately appointed an English governor, with a garrison, which being soon after obliged, from the small number of his forces, to withdraw, Mac Carty resumed possession; and the inhabitants, in 1174, fitted out 30 barques, and, proceeding to Dungarvan, fell with all their force upon Strongbow's army under Raymond le Gros, who had been plundering the neighbouring country, and had just shipped his booty for Wexford; they were, however, repulsed, and Gilbert their commander was slain. In 1177, Henry granted the surrounding territory to Milo de Cogan and Robert Fitz-Stephen, with the exception of the city and adjacent cantreds occupied by the Ostmen, which he kept in his own possession. In 1185 the city was besieged by the Irish forces under Mac Carty; Fitz-Stephen, being closely shut up within the walls, sent for assistance to Raymond le Gros, then at Wexford, and that nobleman coming promptly by sea with a reinforcement of 20 knights and 100 archers, the garrison made a sally and routed the Irish at the first onset. In the following year Dermot Mac Carty, while holding a conference with some other Irish chiefs near the city, was slain by a party of English under Theobald Fitz-Walter, the founder of the noble house of Ormonde; but, shortly after, the success which crowned the military efforts of the native Irish left this the only considerable place of strength in Munster in the possession of the English. The city was now surrounded by the troops of Desmond, and a force detached to its relief was totally defeated; but from the secret jealousies that prevailed in the Irish camp, Daniel Mac Carty, one of the principal chieftains, abandoned the siege, and the garrison was saved from destruction. The English, however, being without succour or provisions, cut off from all intercourse with their countrymen, and perpetually harassed by their enemies, were in a short time obliged to capitulate to the Prince of Desmond; but in a few years they recovered possession of the city, and strengthened it by the erection of an additional fort, which kept the men of Desmond in subjection. Shandon Castle is said to have been built by Philip de Barry, nephew of Fitz-Stephen; and in 1199, John Despenser, the first civic magistrate upon record, was made provost of Cork. From this period a great chasm occurs in the history of the place, which does not appear to have experienced any important changes, or to have been distinguished by any remarkable event, till the death here, in 1381, of the lord-deputy, Edmund Mortimer, Earl of March and Ulster, when John Colton, Dean of St. Patrick's, Dublin, was immediately appointed to that office. In 1492, Perkin Warbeck, in his assumed character of Richard duke of York, arrived here from Lisbon, and was kindly received by the citizens; after a short stay, he embarked for France, whence he returned to this city in 1495, and soon after departed for Scotland; he once more visited this place, and having enlisted a small force, set sail for Cornwall. After the disastrous termination of Warbeck's expedition, the mayor of Cork was hanged for countenancing that impostor; and in 1498, on account of the disloyalty of the citizens, the Earl of Kildare placed a strong garrison here, and compelled the principal inhabitants to swear allegiance to Hen. VII., and give bonds and pledges for their future obedience. In 1541, the mayor was one of four commissioners, appointed in lieu of the Irish brehons or judges, to hear and determine all controversies among the natives of this province. In 1568, the. lady of Sir Warham St. Leger, lord-president of Munster, was, during the absence of her husband, besieged by the insurgents in the city, but was relieved by the lord-deputy, Sir Henry Sidney, with 400 men from England; and in 1575 the lord-deputy again came hither with his forces, and remained six weeks. During this period Queen Elizabeth presented Maurice Roche, mayor of Cork, for his able services against the insurgents, with a silver collar of the order of St. Simplicius, which is still preserved by his descendant, Thos. C. Kearney, Esq., at Garrettstown.
At the commencement of the great Desmond insurrection, the city became the head-quarters of the English forces, and Sir John Perrot arrived with six ships of war for the protection of the port against the threatened assault of the Spaniards. In 1598 Sir Thomas Norris, vice-president of Munster, was obliged to shut himself up here for security against the insurgents sent from Ulster by O'Neill; and in 1601 the lord-deputy assembled at this place the army destined to expel the Spaniards from Kinsale, which was soon after reinforced with 2000 men from England. At this period the city is described by Camden as of an oval figure surrounded by walls, environed and intersected by the river, which is passable only by bridges, and consisting of one straight street continued by a bridge; it is, however, a little trading town of great resort, but so beset by rebellious neighbours as to require as constant watch as if continually besieged." On the death of Queen Elizabeth, in 1602, the mayor and corporation refused at first to proclaim the accession of James; the citizens took arms, and set guards upon the gates to prevent any soldiers from entering the town, disarmed the Protestants, refused to admit Sir Charles Wilmot, who came with his army to quell the disturbance, and determined to acknowledge no authority but that of the mayor; they then proceeded to organize a plan of defence, and, among other outrages, fired upon Shandon Castle, then the residence of Lady Carew, and upon the bishop's palace, where were assembled the commissioners to whom the government of the province had been entrusted. The commissioners sent to Halbowling Fort, in the harbour, for a supply of artillery; but the citizens manned some boats to take that fort, and, if possible, to intercept the supply; and though the attempt was frustrated, several men were killed on both sides; and they succeeded, after some difficulty, in demolishing the Queen's Fort, on the south side of the city. On the 11th of May the lord-lieutenant marched with all his forces into the city, and after condemning some of the leaders to punishment, and leaving a strong garrison, proceeded to Limerick, where similar disturbances had taken place. On this occasion the Queen's Fort was rebuilt as a citadel, to keep the citizens in subjection; and further, to prevent a recurrence of these outrages, the city and liberties were, in 1608, constituted a distinct and independent county. In 1613, James I., in a letter to Sir Arthur Chichester, proposed that Cork should be divided into two counties; but the scheme was opposed by the Earl of Cork, who had lent the lord-president Villiers £500 towards repairing the forts of Cork and Waterford, by which means they were put into a state of defence. In 1636 the Algerines, who had infested this coast five years previously, reappeared, and, aided by the French, spread terror among the inhabitants. The Earl of Strafford, in a letter dated Sept. 15th of that year, states that "the Turks still annoy this coast; they came of late into Cork harbour, took a boat with eight fishermen, and gave chase to two others that saved themselves among the rocks, the townsmen looking on without the power or means to assist them." In March, 1642, the city was blockaded by the insurgents under Gen. Barry and Lord Muskerry; but part of the garrison, making a sally, pursued a detachment of them to their camp at Rochfortstown, where, without the loss of a single man, they killed 200 of the enemy, put their whole army to flight, and took all their baggage and carriages. In 1644 two conspiracies to betray the city to the insurgents, at the head of one of which was the mayor, were discovered and suppressed. On the approach of Cromwell, in 1649, the inhabitants embraced the cause of the parliament. In 1688 a large party of Irish horse and foot, under Lieut.-Gen. Mac Carty, entered the city at midnight, disarmed the Protestant inhabitants, plundered the houses of the most wealthy, and committed similar excesses in all the neighbouring villages. James II. arrived here shortly after; and in the autumn of 1689 the Protestant inhabitants were seized and imprisoned by Lord Clare, the governor, and many of them were sent to the neighbouring castles of Blarney and Macroom. In September, 1690, the city was besieged by the army of Wm. III., under the command of the Earl of Marlborough and the Duke of Wirtemberg; and on this occasion, notwithstanding an agreement with the inhabitants to the contrary, the suburbs were burnt by the governor Mac Elligott; the fortresses called the Catt and Shandon Castle were taken without resistance; and from both these, as well as from a battery near the Red Abbey, and from the steeple of the cathedral church, the south fort and the city were assailed. A breach being made by the cannon at Red Abbey, the troops advanced to the assault; on which the garrison, after a siege of five days, surrendered prisoners of war to the number of 4500, of whom many afterwards made their escape, and 160 were blown up in the Breda man of war, then lying in the harbour. In marching to the assault, the Duke of Grafton, who had entered as a volunteer in William's army, was killed. The royal troops took possession of the city on the 29th of September; and the magistrates, resuming their offices, proclaimed King William and Queen Mary. The annals of the city during the period subsequent to the Revolution, record little deserving of special notice. In 1746, the militia of Cork consisted of 3000 foot and 200 horse, together with a well-appointed company of 100 gentlemen, commanded by Col. H. Cavendish. In 1787 the city was honoured by the presence of the king, then Prince William Henry, commander of the ship Pegasus, which lay at Cove: two years after, a flood, occasioned by a heavy fall of rain, immediately following a storm of snow, which had continued for several days, laid the whole of the streets under water, to the height of five feet, and in some places of seven; several houses were washed away, many injured, and immense damage inflicted on property. The first mail coach arrived in Cork from Dublin in 1789.
About the commencement of the 17th century the city consisted of only one principal street, now called North and South Main-street, and it appears to have undergone but little extension or improvement till the reign of Wm. III., when the corporation began to form new streets and erect public buildings. In 1701 it had only two entrances, the north, leading from Dublin, and the south, from Kinsale; and two bridges, the north and the south, built of wood, and which, by an act of the 1st of Geo. I., cap. 19, the corporation were empowered to rebuild of stone. From the records of the corporation and a plan of the city it appears that, about the middle of the last century, a navigable branch of the river ran down the centre of the South Mall, and that the ground on which the houses forming the south side of that street now stand was an island, beyond which was another small tract called Goose island, now occupied by Charlotte quay; and for many years subsequently another branch ran through Patrick-street, up which vessels sailed at every tide. A map published in 1766 shows that the fields then reached down to the north branch of the river; and the neighbourhood of Ballynamocht, to the east of the Dublin road, was under cultivation. Its rapid advancement may be attributed to the great capabilities of its almost matchless haven, which renders it the emporium of commerce for this part of the country; and the numerous improvements that have since taken place are fully commensurate with its increased importance. It is generally regarded as consisting of the city, the suburbs, and the liberties, all which constitute the county of the city. One mile west of the cathedral the river Lee divides into two branches, insulating a tract about two English miles in length and half a mile in breadth, on which the ancient city was built; and uniting again at its eastern extremity, expands into a noble estuary a mile broad, forming the commencement of the harbour. But that which is now considered as the city includes a district stretching to a considerable distance north and south of these two branches, in which numerous elegant streets have been recently formed, and its limits are progressively extending. The smaller channels which ran through the streets presented at low water a mass of mud, but being some years since arched over by the corporation, the most spacious and elegant streets have been formed above them. Across the two main branches of the river, within the city, are nine stone bridges communicating with the district which, in 1813, was defined for the purpose of local taxation, under the provisions of an act of the 53rd of Geo. III., and is marked out by stones set up in various directions, separating it from the liberties: this district comprises an area of 2379 statute acres, the whole is generally called "the city," and 10,263 houses, of which 8212 are dwelling-houses, and 2051 are warehouses, stores, and other buildings.
The general appearance of the city, particularly since its recent extensive improvements, is picturesque and cheerful; the principal streets are spacious and well paved; most of the houses are large and well built, chiefly of clay-slate fronted with roofing slate, which gives them a clean though sombre appearance; others are built of the beautiful grey limestone of the neighbourhood, and some are faced with cement; those in the new streets are principally of red brick. The streets are now made and repaired under the directions of the commissioners of wide streets, originally constituted a body corporate by an act of the 5th of Geo. III., cap. 24, with extensive powers conferred by that and subsequent acts; and nearly £6000 is annually expended in paving, cleansing, and improving them. The privilege of licensing vehicles of every description plying for hire within the city is vested in these commissioners, who have framed a code of by-laws and a table of rates for regulating them. The city is lighted with gas by the General United Gas Company of London, who in 1825 contracted with the commissioners of wide streets to supply the city and suburbs with coal gas for 21 years, at £3130. 13. 4. per annum: the works are situated on the south branch of the river, and afford an excellent supply. The inhabitants are provided with water from the river Lee, raised by two large water wheels into a capacious reservoir, and thence distributed by metal pipes through all the lower parts of the city: it is conveyed into each house on payment of £2. 2. per annum, but application is about to be made to parliament for an act to empower the Company to regulate the rate according to the value of the houses, as provided by the English and Scottish acts. The works, situated on the north side of Wellington bridge, one mile above the town, were originally constructed by the corporation; but the undertaking was some years since divided into 100 shares, of which 25 were retained by that body, and the remainder purchased by private individuals: it is intended to construct a reservoir on a higher level, from which the water may be conveyed into every house in the city. Until the general establishment of the constabulary system this city had no regularly constituted police; but a force consisting of one officer and 80 men was introduced, for whose accommodation the guard-houses in Tucky-street and Shandon have been fitted up: there is not yet any public nightly watch, but private watchmen are appointed.
Of the bridges over the Lee several are modern and elegant structures. Patrick's bridge, the last over the northern branch, and to which vessels sail up, was erected in 1789 from a design by Mr. M. Shannahan, by a company of shareholders, and was a pay bridge, with a portcullis, which was removed by the commissioners of wide streets in 1823: it consists of three elliptic arches surmounted by an open balustrade, built entirely of hewn limestone, and connects the noble line of quays extending on both sides of the river through the principal part of the city. North bridge, over the same branch, was built of stone early in the last century, at the expense of the corporation, on the site of an ancient wooden bridge, which, with another of the same kind at the southern extremity of the main street, formed for ages the only accessible communication between the town and country: it was thoroughly repaired and widened by the corporation in 1831, when two foot-paths of cast iron were formed, and it now opens a ready communication between the North Main-street, the butter markets, and the populous districts of Shandon. Wellington bridge, at the western extremity of the city, near the termination of the Mardyke, and close to the division of the main channel of the Lee, is a noble structure of hewn limestone, erected by Messrs. Pain, from a design by Richard Griffiths, Esq.: it consists of a centre arch of 50 feet and two side arches each of 45 feet span, with solid parapets, the piers of the arches sunk in caissons; and opens a fine communication with the new western road, near George the Fourth's bridge, which here crosses the south branch of the river. This latter bridge is a plain structure of one arch, built in 1820 entirely of hewn limestone. Midway between it and the Lee mills is a handsome bridge of one arch of 50 feet span, which by a raised causeway leads from the new western road to the county gaol and house of correction. Clarke's bridge, built by the corporation in 1726, is an ancient structure of red clay-slate, communicating between Great George's-street and the cathedral. South bridge, built also by the corporation a few years previously, on the site of the ancient wooden bridge, is a neat structure of three segmental arches of hewn limestone, and has been widened at their expense by the addition of two foot-paths. Parliament bridge, a handsome edifice of one lofty arch, with open parapets, built of hewn limestone, connects the South Mall with Sullivan's quay, to which vessels of considerable burden sail up. Anglesey bridge, erected in 1830 by Sir Thos. Deane, from a design by Mr. Griffiths, is a very handsome structure of hewn limestone, with parapets of cast iron; and consists of two elliptic arches 44 feet in span, with a rise of eleven feet, having between them a waterway of 32 feet crossed by two parallel drawbridges of cast iron, which are raised to admit vessels above it, and are designed to prevent the confusion resulting from the numerous cars and other vehicles which pass over it, by compelling each to keep its proper side. This bridge, which is the last on the southern branch of the river, was built at an expense of more than £9000, defrayed by the commissioners of the new corn market: it is the thoroughfare to Blackrock, Douglas, and Passage, and opens an approach from Warren's-place and the eastern end of the South Mall, on the north, to the new corn market on the south side of the river.
The scenery around the city is exceedingly beautiful, particularly on the east, where two lines of road, called Upper and Lower Glanmire roads, have been formed along the north bank of the river, one on the elevated ground and the other close to the strand; and a variety of new streets, terraces, crescents, and detached villas, have been erected on the sides and summits of the gentle acclivities, commanding magnificent views of the river Lee, the city, Blackrock, and the beautiful and fertile district bounded by the hills of Carrigaline. The scenery on the south side of the river, from Anglesey bridge to Blackrock and Passage, is pleasingly undulating and diversified; elegant houses, with lawns, gardens, and plantations sloping to the water's edge, and commanding delightful views over the noble expanse of water to the lofty and verdant hills of Rathcoony, have been built throughout the entire space. The beauty of the scenery, the mildness and salubrity of the climate, the abundance and purity of the water, the fertility of the soil, and the excellence of the markets, have induced many wealthy families from distant parts to settle here, who have erected very elegant villas and cottages in fanciful situations and in every variety of architectural style. Besides those named under the respective heads of Blackrock, Douglas, Glanmire, and other places in the vicinity of the city, the following are worthy of notice; Woodville, the residence of Gen. Sir Thos. Arbuthenott; Tivoli House, of J. Morgan, Esq.; Eastview, of J. Leycester, Esq., a very pretty villa in the cottage style, commanding a splendid view down the river towards Passage, and containing many valuable paintings and other specimens of virtu; Summerhill, of G. Newenham, Esq.; Belleview, of J. W. Topp, Esq.; Shanakill, of D. Leahy, Esq.; Silver Spring, of J. Cummins, Esq.; Hyde Park, of J. S. Murphy, Esq.; Clifton, of N. Murphy, Esq.; Wilton, of C. H. Leslie, Esq.; Hyde Park House, of J. Morrow, Esq.; Temple Ville, of D. Murphy, Esq.; Carolina, of Mrs. Carroll; Trafalgar, of T. Lyons, Esq.; Beach Hill, of M. Salmon, Esq.; Vostersberg, of W. M. Reeves, Esq.; Ballynamote, of J. Chatterton, Esq.; Woodview, of D. Hamblin, Esq.; Doughcloyne House, of D. Sarsfield, Esq.; Lehannah, of T. Curtis, Esq.; Lehannah, of C. Matthews, Esq.; Somerstown, of J. Swiney, Esq.; Doughcloyne, of J. Simpson, Esq.; Chetwind, of J. Forrest, Esq.; Strawberry Hill, of W. R. Westropp, Esq.; Bruin Lodge, of R. Beare, Esq.; Woodhill, of W. Fitzgibbon, Esq.; Glanmire Rock, of W. Adams, Esq.; The Castle, of Ald. Gibbings; Cottage, of Kieffe O'Kieffe, Esq.; Mount Vernon, of E. Ronayne, Esq.; Castle White, of J. Cope, Esq.; Snugborough, of T. Nelson, Esq.; and Ardmanning, of W. D. White, Esq. The entrance from Dublin, by Patrick's bridge, is remarkably striking and picturesque: the road winds through the beautiful vale of Glanmire and enters that of the Lee opposite the castle of Blackrock, where it joins that from Waterford, Youghal, Midleton, and Cove, and continues westward beneath the plantations of Lota Beg and the lofty and fertile hills of Rathcoony, studded with numerous detached villas commanding the most delightful views of the noble estuary. The approach from Limerick is by a new line of road carried through a fine undulating country; at a short distance from Blackpool it crosses a pleasant valley by a viaduct supported by six lofty arches. The entrance from the west and south is by the new western road parallel with the Mardyke, and midway between the two main branches of the Lee; it crosses George the Fourth's bridge, and is one of the best improvements in or around the city. The approach from Cove, by way of Passage, is through the village of Douglas, passing numerous elegant villas and cottages, and entering the city by Anglesey bridge.
The principal promenade is the Mardyke, a fine raised walk a mile long, extending through the meadows midway between two branches of the river, and shaded by a double row of lofty flourishing elms, from which are extensive and varied views. The Botanic Garden, for some time a favourite place of resort, was sold in 1826, and has been converted by its proprietor, the Very Rev. Theobald Matthews, Provincial of the Capuchins or Reformed Franciscans, into a cemetery laid out in the style of the Pere la Chaise, at Paris: the graves are distributed over the greater part amid the shrubs, plants, and flowers brought hither at a very great expense by the original proprietors; the ground is intersected by broad gravel walks, and there are several handsome monuments. Among these, one of the most remarkable is that erected over a vault belonging to Messrs. Murphy and O'Connor: it consists of a sarcophagus of Portland stone resting on a base of limestone. On the sarcophagus is the figure of a mourning angel, as large as life, of white Italian marble, wrought in Rome by Mr. John Hogan, a native of Cork. At the bottom of the Grand Parade close to the south branch of the river, is a handsome equestrian statue of Geo. II. On a commanding eminence to the north-east of the city are the barracks for infantry and cavalry, erected in 1806 by the late Abraham Hargrave, Esq., and conveniently adapted to the accommodation of 156 officers and 1994 men, with stabling for 232 horses; the grounds for parade and exercise are spacious, and there is an hospital capable of receiving 120 patients. In the south suburb is also a military hospital for about 130 invalids, affording the advantage of change of air for convalescents, but kept up by Government principally as a point d'appui to the surrounding hills; it was by a ball from a battery on this spot that the Duke of Grafton was killed during the siege in 1695. In the South Mall is an elegant house for the county club, built in 1826 by Messrs. Pain, at an expense of about £4000; the front consists of a rustic basement, from which rise three engaged columns of the composite order supporting an entablature and cornice; on the ground floor are a public dining-room 40 feet long by 20 wide, a private dining-room of smaller dimensions, and several apartments for the secretary and steward; and on the first floor are reading, billiard, and card rooms, above which are bed-chambers. The club consists of about 300 members, each of whom pays £5 on admission and a subscription of £5 per annum; naval and military officers are admitted on payment of the annual subscription only. There are also two other clubhouses, namely, Daly's, in the Grand Parade, and the Tucky-street club-house, at the corner of that street and the Grand Parade. The theatre, a well-arranged edifice erected in 1759 by S. Barry and H. Woodward, both celebrated actors in their day, is opened annually for a few months; and balls, concerts, races, and regattas occasionally take place.
The Cork county and city Horticultural Society, established under the patronage of the Duchess of Kent, published its first report in January 1835, by which it appears that, during the three first exhibitions, 233 prizes were awarded to successful candidates for the best specimens of vegetables, fruits, flowers, and herbaceous plants; and according to the 2nd report published Jan. 1836, 274 were awarded: the society is liberally supported by subscription, and promises to be eminently conducive to the horticultural and agricultural improvement of the district. An agricultural society was formed in 1836. The Cork Library Society, in the South Mall, was founded in 1790, and the library contains a valuable collection of more than 10,000 volumes in the various departments of science, art, and general literature; it is managed by a committee who meet every alternate week for the selection of books, the admission of members by ballot, and the transaction of ordinary business. The Cork Royal Institution was founded in 1803 by subscription among private gentlemen of the city and county, for diffusing the knowledge and facilitating the introduction of all improvements in the arts and manufactures, and for teaching by lectures the application of science to the common purposes of life. The obvious usefulness of such an institution recommended it to the favourable consideration of Government, and in 1807 the proprietors obtained a royal charter of incorporation and a parliamentary grant of £2000 per annum. For several years lectures were annually given on Natural Philosophy, Natural History, Chemistry, Mineralogy, Botany, and other useful branches of Science; but in 1830 the grant was withdrawn, and the lectures have been since discontinued. On withholding the grant, Government presented to the proprietary the old custom-house, a fine spacious building in Nelson-place, subject to a rent of £65 per ann., to which the Crown was previously liable. There are at present, belonging to the institution, museums of natural history and mineralogy, a scientific and medical library containing more than 5000 volumes, philosophical and chemical apparatus, and a splendid series of casts from the antique. Several efforts have been made to convert this institution into a collegiate establishment, which the situation of Cork in a populous district remote from the metropolis and surrounded by numerous large towns, and the opportunities of practical study afforded by its Medical and Surgical Charitable Institutions and the existence of a School of Physic and Surgery, render peculiarly desirable, and would compensate for the loss which the inhabitants of the city and surrounding districts have sustained by the withdrawal of the parliamentary grant. The Cork Scientific and Literary Society was founded or revived in 1834, after the dissolution of a former society about ten years previously, and consists of about 90 members and 15 subscribers who pay 10s. per ann.: the former are required to produce in rotation an essay at each meeting of the society, which is read on that evening and discussed at the next meeting, in which discussions the subscribers are permitted to take part: the meetings are held in the lecture-room of the Cork Royal Institution. The meetings of the Cuvierian society, formed in 1835, are held in the same place. The object of this society is the promotion of a friendly intercourse among those who wish to cultivate science, literature, and the fine arts, so as, by personal communication and occasional courses of lectures, to diffuse more generally the advantages of intellectual and scientific pursuits. The Society of Arts was established about the year 1815 for the advancement of painting and sculpture, and was at first liberally encouraged; George IV., when Prince Regent, presented to the society, in 1820, a very valuable collection of casts from the antique; the students were numerous, and were instructed in drawing, and a course of lectures on Anatomy as connected with the art of design was regularly delivered; but the funds becoming in a few years insufficient to defray the expenses, the casts presented by the King were transferred to the Royal Institution. The society, however, still exists, and affords patronage and assistance to youthful genius; Dr. Woodroffe continues to give lectures on the Anatomy of expression, the Philosophy of the human body, and on Phrenology. The Mechanics' Institute was founded in 1824, and has a library of 1500 volumes, a reading-room, and two schools, one for instruction in the arts and sciences, and one for design; there are 210 members, and lectures on scientific subjects are occasionally delivered. The school of Physic and Surgery was founded by Dr. Woodroffe in 1811, and continues to flourish; lectures on Anatomy, Physiology, the theory and practice of Surgery and Midwifery, Materia-Medica, practice of Physic and Clinical Surgery are delivered during the winter half-year: this School is connected with the South Infirmary and the Hospital of the House of Industry, and, being duly recognised by the Royal College of Surgeons in London, the Apothecaries' Hall, Dublin, and the Army and Navy Medical Boards, has been of great benefit to medical students of the south of Ireland. Certificates of attendance at Dr. Cesar's lectures on Anatomy and Materia-Medica, delivered at the Royal Institution, are recognised by the Royal College of Surgeons, London, at Apothecaries' Hall, by the Army and Navy Boards, the Faculty of Physicians and Surgeons of Glasgow, and many continental universities.
The trade of Cork, previously to the late war with France, consisted chiefly in the exportation of butter and beef for the supply of the British navy, to the West Indies, and to the ports of France, Spain, and the Mediterranean; and of hides and tallow chiefly to England. At that time the surrounding districts were nearly all under pasturage and scarcely produced sufficient corn for the supply of their inhabitants; the lands were grazed by vast herds of cattle, and the quantity of beef cured for exportation was perhaps ten times as great as at present; but from the impetus since given to agriculture, a considerable portion of the land has been brought under tillage, and an extensive trade in corn and flour consequently established. This was one of the first places in which the interests of trade and commerce were taken under the protection of the merchants themselves, who established a committee consisting of fourteen merchants who export butter, seven butter merchants who collect it from the various farms, and three tanners, elected annually by their respective trades: this body, under the simple designation of the "Committee of Merchants," is in all respects similar to the Chamber of Commerce in other parts; it has existed as the accredited organ of the trading community and been recognised as such in several local acts since the year 1729, and communicates with the public authorities on subjects connected with the trade of Ireland. The butter trade, which is considered as the most important in the province of Munster, and is carried on in this city to a greater extent than in any other part of the united kingdom, is conducted by two distinct classes of merchants, of whom the one, called the butter merchants, purchase the butter from the dairy farmers, or receive it at the current price for a certain per centage, taking their chance of a rise or fall in the market; and the other, called the export merchants, ship it either on order or on their own account. This trade was formerly regulated by local acts emanating from the Committee of Merchants, under whose superintendence the Cork butter obtained a preference in all foreign markets; and though by representations to parliament from other parts of Ireland all restrictions have been removed, the old regulations are still retained by a compact among the merchants; and the butter is brought to the same weigh-house, where, after its quality has been ascertained by sworn inspectors annually appointed, it is weighed and the firkins are each branded with the quality and weight and with the private mark of the inspector. The weigh-house is capable of receiving 4000 firkins for examination at one time; and the quantity which passed through it annually on an average of four years ending April 30th, 1835, was 263,765 firkins; in the last of these years it exceeded 279,000 firkins, and the trade is gradually increasing. The business of the weigh-house is conducted under the superintendence of a general weigh-master and a sub-committee of export and butter merchants, who appoint inspectors, scalesmen, and other officers. At present there are engaged in this branch of trade between 60 and 70 merchants: the butter is made principally in the counties of Cork, Kerry, and Limerick, particularly Kerry; the best in quality, in proportion to the quantity, comes from the counties of Cork and Limerick, especially the latter and the northern part of the. former, where the dairy farmers are more wealthy, their farms more extensive, and the quality of the soil better than in Kerry or the southern part of Cork. Butter made in Kerry is considered more suitable for warm climates than that of the same quality made in Limerick, from the inferior fertility of the soil and the numerous springs of soft water with which the former county abounds. The carriers employed in conveying the butter from the remote dairy districts take back grocery and other articles of domestic consumption; and this important branch of trade also furnishes constant employment to a numerous body of coopers, not only in the manufacture of firkins, but in what is called trimming or preparing the article for exportation, that which is intended for warm climates requiring the cooperage to be so tight as to exclude the air and confine the pickle. The corn trade of Cork may now be classed among the more important branches of its commerce: the quantity exported annually on an average of four years ending Dec. 25th, 1835, was 72,654 barrels of wheat, 126,519 barrels of oats, and 1749 barrels of barley; and very large quantities of barley and oats are consumed in the distilleries and breweries of the city. A new corn-market was built in 1833 by trustees appointed under an act of the 3rd of Geo. IV., cap. 79: it is a quadrangular enclosure, 460 feet in length and 330 in breadth, situated beyond the south branch of the river near Anglesey bridge; the area, which is enclosed with a high stone wall, is divided into twelve covered walks for the purchasers and thirteen carriage ways for unloading the corn, which is protected from rain by the projecting roofs of the walks; at right angles with these, and extending the whole breadth of the area, is a covered space for weighing; and there are appropriate offices for the collector and the clerks. The expense of its erection, with that of the bridge leading to it, amounted to £17,460, of which the government advanced £4615 towards building the bridge, and the commissioners of parliamentary loans lent £10,000; two individual proprietors of ground in its vicinity, besides giving the site rent-free, contributed £2500 towards the building, which, with the erection of the bridge, is calculated to augment the value of the residue of their property. The quantity of agricultural produce brought to the market is rapidly increasing: in the year ending Aug. 31st, 1835, 83,938 barrels of wheat, 91,743 barrels of barley, 120,597 barrels of oats, and 23,483 carcasses of pork, were weighed here. The increase of tillage before noticed naturally diminished the curing of beef, but it greatly increased that of pork: the provision trade, though diminished, may yet be regarded as the next in importance to that of corn: the government contracts for the navy are still for the greater part executed by the merchants of Cork, though a large portion of the beef is frequently supplied from Dublin; and the provisions for the East India and other trading ships are also chiefly supplied by them. The curing of hams and bacon, formerly confined to Belfast and Waterford, has within the last few years been extensively carried on both here and at Limerick, the breed of hogs being now quite as good in the southern as in the northern and midland counties. The supply of plantation stores for the West Indian proprietors, which was formerly very extensive, has much decreased; and the shipments of provisions to the West Indies as merchandise have dwindled into insignificance, and will now scarcely remunerate the adventurer. The provision trade of the port has also sustained considerable diminution from throwing open to foreigners the supplies of Newfoundland, to which colony upwards of 30,000 barrels of pork were exported annually, chiefly from Cork and Waterford, besides flour, oatmeal, butter, bacon, candles, leather, boots and shoes, and other commodities, and returns were made in fish and oil; this branch of commerce has been almost entirely usurped by the ports of Hamburgh, Copenhagen, and the United States, to which the English schooners previously freighted with the above cargoes either here or at Waterford now go. The quantity of provisions sent from this port on an average of three years ending with 1835 was 16,469 tierces, 19,216 barrels and 5604 half-barrels of beef and pork, and 23,492 bales of bacon annually. The introduction of steam navigation has much increased the exportation of flour to London, Bristol, and Liverpool, the quantity of flour exported on an average of four years ending with 1835 was 79,119 sacks annually. The trade in live stock (chiefly black cattle, sheep, and pigs), in poultry and eggs, and the produce of the river fisheries, has also been greatly promoted by the same means, and is now very extensive. On an average 1200 pigs and half a million of eggs are sent off weekly; and not only is the salmon of the Blackwater, the Bride, the Lee, and the Bandon sent to England by steamers, but that of the rivers in the most remote parts of Kerry is sent hither cured in kits for exportation. The salmon fishery of the Lee has long been celebrated both for the quantity and quality of the fish, which are in season during the whole year, and are distinguished for the superior excellence of their flavour; but the indiscriminate method of taking them with weirs, traps, and nets has nearly destroyed the fishery.
The trade with the Mediterranean consists principally in the importation of bark, valonia, shumac, brimstone, sweet oil, liquorice, raisins, currants and other fruit, marble, and various small articles. The importation of wine is steady and considerable, but not so extensive as formerly, in consequence of the increased consumption of home-distilled spirits: the quantity imported on an average of three years ending with 1835 was 398 pipes, 74 butts, 701 hogsheads, 517 quarter-casks, and 246 cases annually. From 5000 to 6000 tons of salt are annually imported from St. Ubes, exclusively of a large quantity brought from Liverpool. The trade with St. Peters-burgh, Riga, Archangel, and occasionally with Odessa, is chiefly in tallow, hemp, flax, linseed, iron, hides, bristles, and isinglass, but is not very extensive: and as a considerable portion of the tallow and part of the hemp comes indirectly through London and Liverpool, the returns of these articles and others imported in a similar manner are necessarily imperfect: the estimated importations of tallow average about 1580 hogsheads, and of hemp 400 tons, annually. The Baltic trade in timber was gradually declining until the practice of bringing it in through Halifax at the colonial duty of 10s. per load was resorted to. Large quantities of timber are brought from Canada, the trade with which is flourishing: the staves and potashes formerly brought from New York and Baltimore now come mostly from Quebec, though several cargoes of staves have been recently imported from the United States via St. John's (New Brunswick) and Nova Scotia. Flax seed, formerly imported to a considerable extent direct from New York, is now brought from the Baltic and Odessa, and is derived indirectly from England; the quantity of tobacco that paid duty at the custom-house, on an average of three years ending with 1835, was 647,000 lb. annually. The decline of the outward West. India trade, and the facility of procuring supplies from the English ports by steamers, have considerably diminished the direct importation of sugar and other articles of West Indian produce: the quantity of raw sugar annually imported, on an average of three years ending with 1835, amounted to 3109 hhds., 468 tierces, 596 barrels, and 5654 bags; and of refined sugar, to 546 hhds. and 486 tierces. The quantity of herrings now imported, almost exclusively for home consumption, is on an average of three years 17,904 barrels annually. Vast quantities were formerly imported from Scotland and Gottenburgh, and after being repacked here, were shipped off to the West Indies, being found to keep good in that climate better than those from any other port; but the Scots sending for men from Cork soon learned the peculiar mode of packing them, and the trade from this port was discontinued. Fish is imported from Newfoundland, Labrador, and Gaspe in considerable quantities, amounting on the average to 500 tons annually. Many of the merchants are of opinion that the deep sea line fishery on the Nymph Bank, and that in the bay of Galway, if properly conducted, would not only furnish a sufficient supply for home consumption, but even a surplus for exportation. The direct foreign trade of the port having been very much diminished since the introduction of steam navigation, the wholesale dealer in almost every article has been greatly injured; the retailer can now, without holding stock, ensure a weekly supply by steam from Liverpool or Bristol, and, both as regards foreign produce and articles of British growth or manufacture, has thus become an importer; even if he could purchase equally as cheap from the Cork merchant, he prefers announcing his importations in the daily newspapers, by which his own trade is benefited in proportion as that of the wholesale dealer is injured. This diversion of the channel of trade has consequently caused a depression in the value of large warehouses, formerly used as stores for merchandise. But notwithstanding the introduction of steam navigation, the tonnage of sailing vessels belonging to the port has, within the last 25 years, greatly increased; and a manifest improvement has taken place in the principle of their construction. Formerly the vessels built here were considered so inferior that underwriters were reluctant to insure them, and even the Cork merchants preferred shipping valuable cargoes in others; now the London traders of the highest class, which are insured at Lloyd's for a less premium than other vessels, have been built in the river of Cork. By far the greater portion of the tonnage is, however, employed in the Canadian timber and Welsh coal trades, the latter of which was formerly for the most part carried on in Welsh vessels. The coal trade is very considerable: a local duty of one shilling per ton late currency is levied for the support of the Foundling Hospital on all coal brought into the port, amounting to about 120,000 tons annually. The number of registered vessels belonging to the port, in Jan. 1836, was 302, of the aggregate burden of 21,514 tons, and employing 1684 men: this enumeration includes vessels trading from Kinsale and Youghal, which are now registered as belonging to Cork. There are two shipbuilding yards, each having a patent slip in which vessels of 500 tons can be hauled up and repaired: vessels of every size to 400 tons have been built in these yards. At Passage there are two ship-building yards, one of them having a very fine dry dock: these establishments employ about 200 hands. During the year ending Jan. 5th, 1836, 164 British ships of the aggregate burden of 29,124 tons, and 27 foreign ships of 2912 tons aggregate burden, employed in the foreign trade, entered inwards; and 69 British and 20 foreign ships, of the aggregate burden of 10,098 tons, cleared outwards: in the trade with Great Britain, 2246 vessels of all kinds, of 226,318 tons aggregate burden, entered inwards, and 1384 of 166,516 tons aggregate, cleared outwards: and in the intercourse with Irish ports, 406 vessels, of 18,564 tons aggregate burden, entered inwards; and 596 of 20,384 tons aggregate cleared outwards. The amount of duties paid at the custom-house for the same year was £216,446. 1. 7. and of Excise for the same period £252,452. 14. 6 1/2. The superior facilities afforded by steam navigation have given an extraordinary impulse to the trade of this port: the agricultural produce of all the western parts of the country south of Limerick is brought hither for exportation, in return for which, groceries, woollen and cotton goods, and other commodities are received. The completion of the great Western railway from Bristol to London will tend to a still further extension of this profitable system of interchange, by expediting the conveyance of live stock, provisions, and other Irish produce to London. In 1821, two steam-boats were employed by a Scottish Company to trade between Cork and Bristol, but, from drawing too much water, did not remain on this station more than six months, after which the boats of the Bristol Company traded for some time, and in 1825 the St. George's Company introduced a line of packets between Cork and Liverpool, and afterwards between Cork and Bristol, which have been ever since continued, and have engrossed the entire carrying trade of the port by steam. The capital of this company amounts to £300,000, subscribed in shares, of which one-third are held by Cork proprietors. It now employs seven vessels of about 500 tons' burden and 250-horse power each; two of these ply to Bristol, one to Liverpool, three to London, and one to Dublin: all carry passengers, goods, and cattle. The company's office, built on Penrose's quay in 1832, is a neat building with an entrance porch of the Doric order surmounted by a pediment on four Ionic columns, above which is a sculpture of St. George and the Dragon. Four smaller steam-boats ply daily between Cork and Cove. The American Steam-Packet Company's vessels will touch here on their way to and from Liverpool. Rail-roads to Cove, Passage, and Limerick, are in contemplation.
The noble harbour of Cork, which gave rise to the motto of the city, "Statio benefida carinis," is admirably adapted to all the purposes of the most extended commerce; and from its convenient situation, the perfect security with which numerous fleets may winter in a land-locked basin, and its excellent anchorage at all times, it became in time of war the rendezvous of large fleets and convoys, and the port from which the British navy was supplied with all kinds of provisions cured and prepared in a superior manner. The number of small craft on the coast, and of fishing hookers, pilot boats, lighters, and pleasure yachts in the river; the dense population of its shores, inured to hardships and privations, and other considerations, tended to render Cork in the estimation of British statesmen one of the most important places in the empire: and the vast expenditure of public money for supplies during the war; the detention at Cove, sometimes for months together, of large fleets of war, and powerful expeditions, with vast numbers of merchant vessels; the sums laid out on public works in the harbour, the barracks at Cork, Ballincollig, and Fermoy, the powder-mills at Ballincollig, and various other works, for many years gave an extraordinary impulse to its commercial prosperity. What is considered more peculiarly the harbour is situated nine miles below the city, opposite the town of Cove, where ships of any burden may ride in safety; the best anchorage for large ships is off Cove fort, now dismantled and occupied as a naval hospital, where there are from 5 to 8 fathoms of water; vessels of great draught can pass up the river as far as Passage, within five miles and a half of the city, where they discharge and load by means of lighters; and vessels drawing only 14 or 15 feet of water can proceed to the town quays. On the east side of the entrance from the sea to the harbour is Roche's Tower lighthouse, having ten lamps which exhibit a steady deep red light towards the sea, and a bright light towards the harbour. The only naval depot and victualling-yard in Ireland were at Cove, but the establishment now consists merely of an agent and two clerks, and is maintained at an expense of £225 per annum. During the war and for several years after this was the port station of an admiral having a large fleet under his command; but the admiral's flag and the navy have been withdrawn, and at present, the King's flag is seldom seen on the Irish coast, except on the Lord-Lieutenant's yacht. On Hal-bowling island are the spacious and admirably designed naval storehouses, tank, and other requisites, now abandoned; on Spike island are powerful batteries commanding the entrance of the harbour, and on Rocky island is the dep6t for gunpowder. The ballast office, situated on Lapp's island, was established by act of the 1st of Geo. IV., cap. 52, which also provided for the regulation of pilots and the improvement of the port and harbour, by a Board of Harbour Commissioners consisting of the mayor, two sheriffs, the parliamentary representatives of the city, five members of the common council, and 25 merchants, of whom the five senior members go out annually in rotation. Among the various improvements made by this board is the line of quays extending on both sides of the river from the North bridge on the north channel, round the eastern extremity of the island, to Parliament bridge on the south, a distance of one statute mile and a half. From the end of Penrose's quay a new line extending eastward is now nearly completed, and the marsh lying between it and the lower Glanmire road is in course of drainage: when this is accomplished the main central portion of the city will be encompassed with a noble line of quays, 18 feet high and nearly four statute miles in extent, built and coped with limestone principally from the quarries on the Little island and Rostellan. From 1827 to 1834 not less than £34,389 was expended on new quays from the proceeds of the harbour dues. The commissioners have also made an important improvement by deepening the bed of the river, which formerly admitted only vessels of 120 tons, but is now navigable to the quays for vessels of 250 tons; shoals and dangerous banks have been removed by a steam-dredging machine, and buoys laid down to mark the limits of the channel; excellent regulations have been adopted for the conduct of the pilots; lights have been placed on the castle of Blackrock, and various other measures calculated to promote the prosperity of the port have been carried into effect. The average receipts of the commissioners, arising from duties on imports and exports, tonnage duty, and the sale of ballast, for six years to 1835 inclusive amounted to £7549. 16. 8., and the expenditure to £7762. 12. 0. A navigation wall, commencing nearly opposite to the custom-house and extending about an Irish mile along the south shore of the river, was commenced in 1763, to prevent the channel from being choked with the mud which is washed up at every tide; and it is in contemplation to reclaim the extensive slab on the south of it, and render it available to the increase and improvement of the city. The custom-house, completed in 1818, and in which also the business of the excise is transacted, is a plain edifice situated at the eastern extremity of Lapp's island: the central front is ornamented with a pediment, in the tympanum of which are the royal arms, and connected with it are very extensive and appropriate buildings; the long room is spacious and well adapted to the purpose; the commercial buildings, on the South Mall, were erected in 1813, from a design by Sir Thomas Deane, by a proprietary of 129 £100 shareholders incorporated by charter in the 48th of Geo. III., for the accommodation of merchants, for which purpose they are much better adapted than the old exchange: they are fronted with cement, and ornamented with Ionic columns between the windows; the coffee-room, on the first floor, in which the merchants meet, is 60 feet long, 35 feet wide, and 20 feet high, with a coved ceiling chastely embellished, and is well supplied with the English and Irish newspapers and periodicals. Communicating with the commercial buildings, and belonging to the same proprietary, is the Imperial Clarence hotel, well conducted by Mr. McDowel: attached to it is a ball-room, 70 feet long and 36 feet wide, elegantly fitted up, with a refreshment room adjoining, 50 feet long and 36 feet wide; and there are twelve drawing-rooms for private families, and a commercial room for travellers, with every accommodation requisite in a first-rate hotel: all the principal mails start from it. The chamber of commerce, a neat building in Patrick-street, was erected by a body of seceders from the proprietary of the commercial buildings, who, within the last few years, in consequence of a dispute, associated under the above designation, but not, as the name implies, with any reference to the commercial interests of the port, which are under the superintendence of the committee of merchants: the large room is well supplied with newspapers and periodicals, and, like that of the commercial buildings, is open to naval and military officers and to all strangers; the lower and other parts of the building are appropriated to the purposes of a commercial hotel. The post-office is a small but convenient building near the centre of the city: its revenue, in 1835, was £13,022.4. 11. The first mail coach that entered the city was established between Dublin and Cork, on the 8th of July, 1789: there are now day and night mails from Dublin, and one from Waterford every morning, each carrying the English letters, but letters from London come through Dublin, unless ordered via Waterford; and there are several other mail-coaches from Limerick, Bantry, Tralee, and other places, which arrive in the evening before the departure of the Dublin night mail.
The manufactures of the town, though in some branches rather extensive, are generally of little importance compared with its commerce. Formerly Blackpool, a large and populous portion of the suburbs, was principally inhabited by persons engaged in the manufacture of coarse woollens, linens, cottons, thread camlets, stuffs, woollen yarn, and hats, and in wool-combing, dyeing, and other similar occupations; but in 1812, the protecting duty of 10 per cent. on British manufactures, which fostered those of Ireland, being removed, vast numbers were thrown out of employment, who, having in vain remonstrated and petitioned for a more gradual alteration of the system, were ultimately compelled to seek employment in England. The principal branch of manufacture now carried on is the tanning of leather, which article was formerly imported from London and Bristol, but since the assimilation of the duties has become a great source of export; there are 46 tanyards in various parts of the suburbs, of which 25 are very extensive; and in 1835 there were 615 tanners and curriers in constant employment. The average number of hides tanned annually is about 110,000, of which the greater portion were till lately purchased in Liverpool and London, but in 1835, a new branch of commerce was opened by the importation of hides direct from Montevideo and Gibraltar: the number of native hides annually weighed at the crane, on an average of three years ending April 30th, 1835, was 32,068, and of calf skins, 73,416; and the quantity of leather exported on an average of five years ending with 1835 was 5624 bales and 214 crates annually. The quantity of bark imported from foreign countries and from England and Wales for the use of the tanneries, from 1830 to 1835 inclusive, amounted on an average to 6948 tons annually, and of valonia from Smyrna, to more than 2000 tons annually. The encouragement afforded to tillage and the increased production of corn, to supply the demand during the late continental war, gave rise to the establishment of corn-mills, breweries, and distilleries on a large scale, of which the first-named are numerous in the vicinity; the largest breweries are those of Messrs. Beamish and Crawford, and Messrs. Lane; the former is exclusively confined to the manufacture of porter. These breweries employ a great number of hands, and conduce much to the improvement of agriculture. There are seven distilleries in the city and its vicinity; those in the former produce annually 1,400,000 gallons of whiskey, and in the latter, 600,000; the whole consume 268,000 barrels of corn, and employ about 1000 men: the quantity of whiskey shipped at the port in 1835 was 1279 puncheons. There are seven iron-foundries, affording employment to upwards of 300 workmen; and five manufactories in which spades, shovels, &c, are made, also two manufactories of steel, and an extensive establishment for coppersmith's work chiefly for the distilleries and breweries. The quantity of iron imported annually is upwards of 6000 tons; and in the various departments of the iron trade within the city and liberties, including smithies, nearly 1000 men are employed. The paper-mills are numerous and extensive, and their produce is in great demand: the number of persons employed exceeds 400. In the city are two large glasshouses for the manufacture of flint glass for the home and foreign markets, with extensive premises for cutting, engraving, &c, attached to each, affording employment to 246 persons. The manufacture of woollen cloth was introduced prior to 1732, and flourished for many years: the principal manufacturers were Messrs. Lane, who for more than twenty years after the union furnished the entire clothing for the Irish army; their mills were situated at Riverstown, but are now applied to other purposes. At Glanmire are the extensive mills of Messrs. Lyons and Hanly, for the. manufacture of fine cloth; and at Blarney are mills for spinning yarn for the supply of Mr. Mahony's stuff and camlet manufactory in Cork. There are still a few wool-combing and dyeing establishments, besides mills at Douglas and Glanmire, where linens and cottons are bleached and finished, and several rope-walks established for the manufacture of patent cordage. Many of the poor are employed in weaving coarse cotton checks, which are sold at a very low price by Messrs. Todd and Co., who have a very large establishment on the plan of those in London, furnished with goods of every kind. Cutlery of superior quality is extensively manufactured, and bears a higher price than that brought from England. The trade in gloves is very flourishing, and employs a great number of people; those made here are always sold as Limerick gloves. Acids, mineral waters, and vinegar of superior quality are also extensively made. The manufacture of canvas was formerly extensive, but is now declining, the article being imported cheaper from Liverpool, Glasgow, Greenock, and East Cocker. The soap manufacture has been much diminished by the increase of tillage and the decrease in the slaughtering of cattle; and the manufacture of candles, with which this place once almost exclusively supplied the West Indian market, in which it still enjoys a preference, has been affected by the same cause. The Bank of Ireland and the Provincial Bank, about the year 1825, opened branch establishments here, which have afforded liberal accommodation to trade; and two new joint stock companies, the National, and the Agricultural and Commercial, have since established branch banks in the city. The savings' bank is a large and handsome edifice; the deposits, at the close of 1836, exceeded £240,000: it was established in 1817, from which period to the end of 1836, the number of depositors was 24,000, of whom 7066 are now on the books. The principal market days are Wednesday and Saturday but all the markets are open daily. Fairs under the charter are held on Trinity-Monday and Oct. 1st, in an open area called Fair-field, half a mile to the north-west of the town. The city market, for meat, fish, poultry, fresh butter, vegetables, and fruit, was opened in 1788: it is conveniently situated near the centre of the city, with spacious entrances from Patrick-street, Prince's-street, and the Grand Parade, and comprises several detached buildings suitably arranged; it is divided into separate departments, and is abundantly supplied daily with every kind of provisions. The cattle market is held near the Shandon markets: the number of horned cattle annually sold here for the provision merchants formerly exceeded 50,000, but the average of three years ending Dec. 25th, 1835, was less than 6000 annually: the number of pigs sold alive in this market to the provision merchants is on an average 90,000 annually, exclusively of the carcases sold in the new corn market.
The corporation is very ancient, and exists probably by prescription. A charter was granted by John, Earl of Morton, while viceroy of Ireland, in the reign of his father Hen. II., in the preamble of which it is stated -- "I have granted and given, and by this my charter confirm, to the citizens of Cork all the fields held of my city of Cork and the ground on which the city is, now. for my benefit to increase the strength of the citizens. This is to them and their heirs to hold of me and my heirs, and to remain in frank burgage, by such custom and rent as the burgesses of Bristol, in England pay yearly for their burgages; and to secure my city of Cork I grant this to the same my citizens of Cork all the laws, franchises, and customs or freight which are in Bristol on whatsoever sails. And firmly commanding that the aforesaid my citizens of Cork and their heirs and their successors have the aforesaid city of Cork of me and my successors as is aforesaid, and have all the laws and franchises and frank customs of Bristol; and as those were wont to be used and written in my court and in my hundred of Cork, and in all business. And I forbid that any wrong or hindrance be given to the aforesaid laws and franchises, which gift from us are given and granted, &c." A copy of this charter is preserved amongst the Harleian MSS. in the British Museum, but the original is lost. The earliest charter extant is one of the 26th of Hen. III., which granted the city and its appurtenances in fee farm at an annual rent of 80 marks, with prisage of wine, custom, and cocket within the jurisdiction of the port, and certain personal privileges to the citizens, among which was an exemption from toll and all other customs throughout his dominions: under this charter the chief officer of the corporation was called "provost." Edw. I. granted two charters, in the 19th and 31st of his reign, the latter of which authorised the bailiffs and men of Cork to have murage, as in other towns in Ireland, for six years. The charter of the 11th of Edw. II. is the first in which the office of mayor is named: the same monarch, in the following year, confirmed the charter of the 19th of Edw. I., and gave to the mayor elect the privilege of being sworn before his predecessor in office, instead of going to Dublin to take the oaths before the barons of the exchequer; charters were also granted in the 4th and 5th of Edw. III., 5th of Rich. II., and 2nd of Edw. IV., the last of which, after reciting that the mayor and commonalty had eleven parish churches within the city, with suburbs extending one mile in every direction, that had been for 50 years preceding destroyed by Irish enemies and English rebels, on which account they were unable to pay the fee farm rent, remitted all arrears, and granted them the cocket of the city for the construction of the walls, to be held until they should be able to travel peaceably one mile beyond them. In the 15th of Edw. IV. all former charters were confirmed, and the mayor and citizens were allowed to enjoy all their franchises both within the city and suburbs and through the entire port, "as far as the shore, point, or strand called Rewrawne, on the western part of the said port, and as far as to the shore, point, or strand of the sea, called Benowdran, on the eastern part of the same port, and so far as the castle of Carrigrohan, on the western side of the said city, and in all towns, pills, creeks, burgs, and strands in and to which the sea ebbs and flows in length and breadth within the aforesaid two points, called Rewrawne and Benowdran:" it then releases during pleasure all arrears of the rent of 80 marks, and grants that the corporation, in lieu thereof, shall in future render at the exchequer 20lb. of wax. Hen. VII. granted a charter of inspeximus; and Hen. VIII., in the 1st of his reign, gave a confirmatory charter, and in the 28th another, which also conferred upon the mayor the privilege of having a sword carried before him, the sword-bearer to wear "a remarkable cap" (which ceremony is still observed), and granted him the custody of the castle. Edw. VI., in the 3rd of his reign, granted a charter of confirmation; and in the 18th of Eliz. the mayor, recorder, and bailiffs, and the four senior aldermen who had served the office of mayor, were constituted keepers of the peace within the city both by land and by water; and they, or three of them, of whom the mayor and recorder were to be two, were appointed justices of oyer and terminer and general gaol delivery, with power to enquire into all felonies, trespasses, &c, within the city and liberties; this charter also contained a grant to the corporation of all fines and amercements. The charter of the 6th of Jas. I., after granting that Cork should be a free city, and changing the style of the corporation to that of mayor, sheriffs, and commonalty, with power to make by-laws for the regulation of the municipality, constituted the city and a surrounding district to be marked out by commissioners a distinct county, over which the powers of the justices of the peace for the city were extended, and released the corporation from their annual payment of 20lb. of wax: this charter also granted permission to hold two fairs with all tolls, &c, and created a corporation of the staple with privileges equal to those of London or Dublin. In the 7th of Chas. I. a confirmatory charter was granted, which, after declaring that justices of the county of Cork should have no jurisdiction within the city, further directs that each mayor, on retiring from office, shall be an alderman, and that all the aldermen shall be members of the common council, provided the number do not exceed 24: it also empowers the corporation to elect a town-clerk, clerk of the Crown, and public notary; and likewise six aldermen of the ward, who should have power to determine all causes not exceeding 405. arising within their respective wards. By the charter granted in the 9th of Geo. II. all the aldermen, immediately on retiring from the office of mayor, were made justices of the peace within the county of the city: the same monarch, in the 21st of his reign, granted another charter, which is the last given to the corporation, authorising them to hold two fairs annually at a place called the Lough, within the liberties, and to take the usual tolls. Under the authority of these charters a series of by-laws passed in 1721, for electing the officers and otherwise regulating the affairs of the corporation, the different classes in which are the mayor, sheriffs, aldermen, burgesses, and commonalty or freemen. The mayor is chosen on the first Monday in July, nominally by a majority of the freemen, according to a form expressed in one of the by-laws, from among the resident burgesses or persons who have served the office of sheriff, of whom five, whose names have been drawn from a hat containing the names of all entitled to be elected, are put in nomination; but this right of the freemen to choose the mayor is rendered almost nugatory by an association called the "Friendly Club," consisting of about 500 of the freemen, of whom more than 300 are resident, by one of whose rules the members are bound to vote for one of the two senior burgesses of the five whose names are drawn. The sheriffs are elected on the same day as the mayor, by and from the freemen; but the interposition of the Friendly Club operates in like manner as in the election of mayor. The aldermen are such members of the corporation as have served the office of mayor, and are unlimited in number; six of them, elected by the freemen at large in a court of D'Oyer hundred held for the purpose on a vacancy occurring, are called "Aldermen of the Ward." The burgesses are those who have served the office of sheriff, and are also unlimited in number; and the common council is composed of the mayor, recorder, two sheriffs, and aldermen, not exceeding in all 24, and should they not amount to that number, the deficiency is made up by election from among the burgesses. All by-laws, and orders for the payment of money, letting and disposing of the corporate property, and the admission of freemen, must originate in the common council, and are afterwards confirmed in the court of D'Oyer hundred. Besides the recorder, the assistant officers of the corporation are a common speaker (who represents the commonalty and attends the meetings of the council, where he is permitted to sit and hear the deliberations, but has no vote), town-clerk, chamberlain, clerks of the Crown, peace, and council, a water and deputy water bailiffs, sword-bearer, two serjeants-at-mace, assay-master, weighmasters, two coroners, and other inferior officers; the principal of these are elected by the freemen at large, in a court of D'Oyer hundred. The appointment of the mayor, sheriffs, recorder, and town-clerk is subject to the approbation of the lord-lieutenant and privy council. The freedom is inherited by the first-born sons of freemen, and obtained by apprenticeship of seven years to a freeman and by grace especial of the common council, subject, in the last case, to the approval of the court of D'Oyer hundred, except as regards persons of distinction who may happen to be in the city, and to whom the council think fit to present the freedom. The city first sent members to the Irish parliament in 1374, but representatives who appear to have served in London were chosen previously. The right of election was vested in the freemen of the city, and in the 40s. freeholders and £50 leaseholders of the county of the city, of whom the freemen, in 1831, amounted in number to 2331, and the freeholders to 1545, making a total of 3876; but by the act of the 2nd of Wm. IV., cap. 88 (under which the city, from its distinguished importance, retains its privilege of returning two representatives to the Imperial parliament, and the limits of the franchise, comprising the entire county of the city, remain unaltered), the non-resident freemen, except within seven miles, have been disfranchised, and the privilege of voting at elections has been extended to the £10 householders, and the £20 and £10 leaseholders for the respective terms of 14 and 20 years. The number of voters registered up to Jan. 2nd, 1836, amounted to 4791, of whom 1065 were freemen; 2727 £10 householders; 105 £50, 152 £20, and 608 forty-shilling freeholders; 3 £50, 7 £20, and 2 £10 rent-chargers; and 1 £50, 26 £20, and 95 £10 leaseholders: the sheriffs are the returning officers. The mayor, recorder, and all the aldermen are justices of the peace for the county of the city; and the mayor is also a judge of assize, justice of the peace for the county at large, a judge of the courts of record and conscience, and president of the council and of the court of D'Oyer hundred. Under the new Police bill, there are a chief constable, a head constable, 11 constables and 62 sub-constables. The courts of the corporation are the mayor and sheriffs' court, the courts of city sessions and conscience, and the police office or magistrates' court. The mayor and sheriffs' court, held weekly, has jurisdiction in all personal and mixed actions, except replevin and ejectment, in pleas to any amount; and is a court of record, in which the pleadings are similar to those of the superior courts. Suits may be commenced either by serviceable writ, bailable writ, or attachment against goods, in which last mode the debt sought to be recovered must amount to at least 40s. Irish. The mayor and sheriffs originally presided as judges; but by the 11th and 12th of Geo. III., cap. 18, the recorder, or his deputy, being a barrister of three years' standing, was made judge, and authorised to sit alone; in his absence the mayor and one of the sheriffs are necessary to constitute a court. The city sessions court is held quarterly before the justices, but by the act above noticed the recorder is empowered to hold the court alone, and in general is the only judge presiding; a grand jury is returned by the sheriff to serve for the entire quarter, and the court sits weekly by adjournment. The number of prisoners tried at these sessions in 1835 was 401, of whom 110 were for felonies and 291 for misdemeanours. The court of conscience was constituted by act of the 3rd of Geo. IV., cap. 85, for the recovery of debts not exceeding 40s. arising within the county of the city: the act appoints the mayor and aldermen of the ward judges, not less than three of them to be sufficient to hold the court. The police-office, or magistrates' court, adjoins the court of conscience, and was constituted by the same act. The revenue of the corporation, exclusively of the expense of collecting the tolls, amounts to about £6237 per annum, arising from various sources.
The city is within the Munster circuit: the assizes for the county at large are held here, and, at the same time, those for the county of the city. It is also one of the places at which, in September, the assistant barrister holds his courts for the East Riding. The present city court-house, or guildhall, is situated on the south side of the exchange, and contains on the first floor a council-chamber, in which the mayor and council assemble to transact business and hold the courts of D'Oyer hundred. The exchange, situated at the angle of Castle-street and the north Main-street, a small regular structure of hewn stone, erected by Twiss Jones in 1709, at the expense of the corporation, has been taken down, and is to be re-erected in front of the market on the Grand Parade. The old county court-house, anciently called "the King's Castle," being too small and inconvenient, a county and city court-house was erected in 1835 by Messrs. Pain: it is a large and handsome edifice, in the Grecian style of - architecture, with a boldly projecting portico of eight columns supporting an entablature and cornice surmounted by a pediment, on the apex of which is a group of figures representing Justice between Law and Mercy: the interior contains two semicircular courts, and the various offices in the back part of the building are so arranged as to afford the public and the officers facility of access without collision; the judges and barristers can go from one court to the other by private passages; and the entire building, which was erected at an expense of about £20,000, reflects equal credit on the taste and judgment of the architects. The mansion-house, beautifully situated on the bank of the river, near the entrance to the Mardyke Walk, is a large and handsome edifice, built in 1767 by the celebrated Ducart, at an expense of £3793. The entrance-hall and staircase are spacious; on the first landing-place is a well-sculptured bust of George IV., and in a niche in the first lobby is a full-length marble effigy of the first Rt. Hon. Wm. Pitt, in his robes of office and holding a scroll in his right hand, placed there in 1766. The dining and drawing-rooms are large and fitted up in a costly manner: in the former is a full length figure of Wm. III. in armour, with a scroll in the right hand and the head encircled by a wreath of laurel, standing on a pedestal bearing an inscription recording its erection by the corporation and citizens in 1759. In the entrance-hall are the ancient "nail" or "nail head" of the city, and the ancient standard brass yard; also a curious representation of the city arms cut in stone, which was found some years since on taking down the old custom-house. The city gaol is a castellated building, situated on an eminence near Sunday-well. It was at first divided into two equal compartments, one for males and the other for females; but the original arrangement has been altered, and the prison is now divided into 32 wards, 8 for male and 1 for female debtors, 9 for male and 8 for female culprits; the remaining 6 are hospital wards. There are 54 cells, affording accommodation for 162 male culprits; and 48 for females, accommodating 96. Each ward has a day room and airing-yard, and in one of these is a treadmill used to raise water for the supply of the prison. Separate places of worship are fitted up for Protestants and Roman Catholics: the number of prisoners committed, in 1835, was 263 male and 153 female criminals; 245 male and 99 female misdemeanants; 29 soldiers; 314 male and 31 female debtors, making a total of 851 males and 283 females. The expenditure for that year was £2557. 3. 6. The city bridewell is for the temporary confinement of prisoners under examination before final committal, and of disorderly persons taken up in the night until brought before the magistrates; eight cells with fire-places in each were recently added to it for solitary confinement. The gaol and house of correction for the county are situated at a short distance from the town on the south side of the new western road. The entrance was originally from the south; but the new approach to the city, between the north and south branches of the river, afforded the architects an opportunity of forming an entrance on the north side, for which purpose a bridge of one arch was built over the south channel communicating with a causeway raised about six feet across the adjacent meadows. Along the north side of the prison is an esplanade, about 40 feet broad, in the centre of which, and directly opposite to the bridge is an entrance portico of four Doric columns surmounted by a pediment; the design is taken from the Temple of Bacchus, at Athens. The gaol has been enlarged at different periods, and is now very commodious and well-arranged. It is under the direction of a governor and deputy-governor; and is divided into 8 wards, 2 for male debtors, 5 for male offenders, and 1 for females of every description, which is subdivided into three sections appropriated respectively to debtors, untried and convicts. The male wards contain 95 cells, capable of accommodating 425 inmates; that of the females has accommodations for 66; each ward has a day-room and a spacious airing-yard: there are four solitary cells. The gaol and the surrounding extensive enclosed ground are kept in the highest order; the prisoners, who on their admission are clothed in a distinguishing prison dress, are fully occupied either on the tread-wheel or in the duties of whitewashing and cleansing the floors, yards, and passages. The number of prisoners committed in 1835 was 978, of whom 740, including 203 females, were charged with criminal offences; 200, of whom 12 were females, were debtors; 20 were soldiers, and 18, of whom one was a female, were committed under process of the exchequer. The House of Correction, built by Messrs. Pain on the north side of the gaol, is a well-arranged edifice, consisting of a centre and two detached wings towards the gaol, and of three other ranges of building, radiating from the centre northward. The centre contains the governor's apartments on the ground floor, a chapel both for Protestants and Roman Catholics on the second, and an infirmary on the third. The radiating buildings contain 78 cells, with washing-rooms in each range; on the ground floor are day and work rooms, having airing-yards attached to them. The number of convicts committed, in 1835, was 567. The prison is under the management of a governor. The classification and regulations, both of the gaol and house of correction, are highly conducive to the reformation of the prisoners. Those in the latter establishment are employed in manufacturing their own clothing and other necessary articles of consumption: attached to it is a tread-mill, used for supplying both prisons with water. A sum of £1600 was presented by the Grand Jury, at the last autumn assizes, for an hospital for the use of the prisoners, to be erected on the adjoining ground: it is to extend 100 feet in front, the centre to be two stories high, with wings; the interior is to be divided into six wards, three for each sex. The Female Penitentiary or Convict Depot, occupies the site of the old fort erected in the southern suburb, in the reign of Elizabeth. It is capable of containing 250 inmates, who are brought hither from all parts of Ireland, and remain until the arrival of vessels to convey them to their final place of destination. During their residence here they are employed in needle-work, washing and knitting, so as to supply not only themselves but all the convicts sent out of Ireland with clothing: the number of suits thus made annually is about 1000. The number committed to this prison, in 1835, was 457, of whom 315 were transported to New South Wales. Schools have been established in all the prisons. The hulk is no longer used as a place of confinement.
Arms of the Bishoprick.
The foundation of the See of Cork is generally ascribed to St. Barr or Finbarr, in the early part of the 7th century: his relics, which were enclosed in a silver shrine, were carried away from the cathedral, in 1089, by Dermot, the son of Turlough O'Brian, when he pillaged Cork. St. Finbarr is said to have been succeeded by St, Nessan. In 1292, Bishop Robert Mac Donagh was twice fined £130 for presuming to hold pleas in the ecclesiastical courts for matters belonging to the Crown; and these two fines were paid, with the exception of £84. 14. 2., which was remitted. In 1324 Philip of Slane was sent in embassy to the pope by Edw. II., and discharged his commission with such address that he was made one of the privy council of Ireland. On his return, an assembly of bishops, noblemen, and others was held, at which it was resolved that all disturbers of the public peace should be excommunicated; that the small and poor bishopricks not exceeding £20, £40, or £60 per annum, and which were governed by the mere Irish, should be united with the more eminent bishopricks; and that the Irish abbots and priors should receive Englishmen into lay brotherhoods, as in England. In 1430, the sees of Cork and Cloyne being both vacant, Pope Martin V. united them, and appointed Jordan, chancellor of Limerick, bishop of the united diocese. The last Roman Catholic bishop before the Reformation was John Fitz-Edmund, of the noble family of the Geraldines, who was appointed bishop by the pope in 1499. After his death his powerful relatives seized the revenues of Cloyne and part of those of Cork. In 1536, Dominic Tirrey, who was reckoned favourable to the Reformation, was appointed bishop by mandate of Hen. VIII., and held the see 20 years, during which period the pope appointed two ecclesiastics to the united see, neither of whom took possession. Matthew Sheyn, who was appointed bishop by Elizabeth in 1572, was a great enemy to the veneration paid to images, and, in October, 1578, burnt that of St. Dominick at the high cross of Cork, to the great grief of the people. William Lyon was consecrated bishop of Ross in 1582, and on the 17th of May, 1586, Elizabeth annexed the sees of Cork and Cloyne to Ross, in favour of this prelate, who, in a return to a regal visitation held about the year 1613, states "that the bishoprick of Cloyne was granted by his predecessor, in fee farm, at five marks rent; that Cork and Ross, when he came into possession, were worth only £70 per annum, but that he had improved them to £200 per annum; that he built a mansion-house at Ross, at an expense of at least £300, which, in a little more than three years after, was burnt down by the rebel O'Donovan; that he found no episcopal house at Cork, but that he built one, which cost him at least £1000; and that he never was in possession of the house belonging to the bishoprick of Cloyne, which was withheld from him by Sir John Fitz-Edmund Fitz-Gerald in his lifetime, and since his death by his heir." After Bishop Lyon's decease, the see was successively occupied by John and Richard Boyle, relatives of the Earls of Cork: the latter, who was afterwards archbishop of Tuam, died at Cork in 1644, and was buried in the cathedral, in a vault he had prepared during his prelacy. While he occupied this see, he is stated to have repaired more ruinous churches and consecrated more new ones than any other bishop in that age. This prelate was succeeded by Dr. Chappel, provost of Trinity College, Dublin, whose successor was Michael Boyle, son of Dr. Chappel's predecessor. Bishop Boyle was succeeded by Dr. Synge, who, by will dated May 23rd, 1677, left several legacies to the poor of St. Finbarr's (Cork), Youghal, Cloyne, and Innishowen. From the death of this prelate, the see of Cloyne was held separately from the united see of Cork and Ross until 1835. Dr. Wetenhall, who was the first Bishop of Cork and Ross, "suffered great cruelties and oppressions from the year 1688 to the settlement under King William," and at his own expense repaired the episcopal palace at Cork. Dr. Brown, Provost of Trinity College, was promoted to this bishoprick in 1709, and held it till his death, in 1735. By his encouragement several churches were rebuilt or repaired, and glebe-houses erected; and a handsome public library, with a large room for a charity-school, was built near the cathedral. He expended more than £2000 on a country house, built in a demesne of 118 acres belonging to the see, at Ballinaspick or Bishopstown, near Cork, which he occupied as a summer residence, and left to his successors free from any charge. By will he left £300 contingently, of which one-third of the interest was to be paid to the librarian of the library recently erected near the cathedral (to which he also bequeathed some of his books), one-third for the purchase of books for its use, and the remainder for the widows and children of poor clergymen; he also left £20 to the poor of St. Finbarr's parish, and £100 for clothing and apprenticing poor children. On the death of Dr. Brinkley, bishop of Cloyne, in 1835, that bishoprick was added to Cork and Ross by the Church Temporalities Act of the 3rd of Wm. IV., and the united see is called the bishoprick of Cork, Ross, and Cloyne. By the act for amending the Church Temporalities Act, £1500 per annum, commencing Sept. 14th, 1835, has been granted out of the funds at the disposal of the Ecclesiastical Commissioners, to compensate Dr. Kyle, the present bishop, for the loss he has sustained in exchanging the temporalities of Cork and Ross for those of Cloyne. The diocese is one of the eleven which constitute the ecclesiastical province of Cashel; it is entirely within the county of Cork, extending about 74 miles in length and 16 in breadth, and contains an estimated superficies of 356,300 acres. The chapter of Cork consists of a dean, precentor, chancellor, treasurer, archdeacon, and the twelve prebendaries of Kilbrogan, Kilbritain, Killaspigmullane, Cahirlog, Liscleary, Killanully, Inniskenny, Kilnaglory, Holy Trinity, St. Michael, Desertmore, and Dromdaleague. The see lands comprise 3306 acres, about one-half of which is profitable land; and its gross annual revenue, on an average of three years ending Dec. 31st, 1831, was £2630. 1.; the whole is now vested in the Ecclesiastical Commissioners, under the Church Temporalities Act. To the dean belong, as the corps of the deanery, the rectory and vicarage of Templebready, and the rectories of Cullen and Templemartin, the tithes of which amount to £921. 4. per annum; besides which he has a residence, or deanery, and the right of nomination to the perpetual cure of Templebready, of the annual value of £56. 6. 7., and to the curacy of St. Finbarr's of the annual value of £100. To the precentor belong the rectories of Carrigrohane, Curricuppane, a third of Corbally, and a fourth of Kinneigh, the tithes of which amount to £858. 6. 8. per annum; to the chancellor belongs the consolidated rectory of St. Nicholas, the tithes of which amount to £315; to the treasurer belong the rectory entire of Ballinadee, and the tithes of the townlands of Kilgoban, Rathdowlan, and Mackloneigh, amounting altogether to £651.10. 8 1/2.; to the archdeacon belong the rectories of St. Peter, in the city of Cork, and those of Nohoval, Kilmanogue, Dunbollogue, and Dunisky, the tithes of which amount to £856. 4. 7., and about £200 of which is paid as minister's money, in lieu of tithes, for St. Peter's parish. The endowments of the prebends will be found in the accounts of the parishes after which they are named. The cathedral is also the parish church of St. Finbarr's, and is described in the account of that parish in a subsequent part of this article. The annual income of the economy estate, on an average of three years ending Aug. 30th, 1831, was £786. 3. 6., principally arising from the tithes of two-thirds of that part of the parish of St. Finbarr which is in the city, and of the whole of that part which is in the county, of Cork. The expenditure consists of repairs of the cathedral, and payments to its officers, &c, but principally in the building and support of St. Michael's chapel at Blackrock, from which, in 1831, the economy estate was in debt £1400. This is the only fund under the control of the dean and chapter in their corporate capacity, and the only benefices in their patronage are the perpetual cure of Marmullane and the chapelry of St. Michael. The four vicars choral possess a net annual income of more than £1200, arising from the tithes of several parishes and the rents of some houses in Cork, and yielding to each above £300 per annum. The palace is the only portion of the property of the see, except the mensal and demesne lands, that is not vested in the Ecclesiastical Commissioners. The consistorial court of the dioceses of Cork and Ross is held in the chapter-house at Cork; its officers are a vicar-general, registrar, and proctors; the registrar is keeper of the records of the see, which consist of original wills, oaths, declarations, canons, and records of the proceedings of the bishops, the oldest of which commences in 1521. The total number of parishes in the diocese is 84, of which 11 are unions; they are comprised in 65 benefices, 6 of which are in the patronage of the Crown, 2 in the alternate patronage of the Crown and the Bishop, 41 in the gift of the Bishop, 5 in the gift of incumbents, and the remaining 11 in the patronage of laymen. There are 58 churches and 26 school buildings, besides which are other houses licensed by the bishop, in which divine worship is regularly performed. The glebe-houses are 25 in number.
In the R. C. divisions Cork forms a separate bishoprick, comprising 35 parochial districts, containing 81 chapels: of these, 71 are parochial, 3 annexed to presentation convents, and one to each of the Dominican, Capuchin, Augustinian, Carmelite, and Franciscan friaries; one to an Ursuline convent, and one to the Magdalen Asylum, Cork. The total number of the R. C. clergy, in 1835, including the bishop, was 74, of which 35 were parish priests and 39 coadjutors or curates. The parochial benefice of the bishop, who resides in Cork, is the union of Shandon, called the North Parish.
The county of the city comprises a populous rural district of great beauty and fertility, watered by several small rivulets and intersected by the river Lee and its noble estuary: it is bounded on the north by the barony of Fermoy, on the east by that of Barrymore, on the south by Kerricurrihy, and on the west by Muskerry: it comprehends the parishes of St. Finbarr, Christ-Church or the Holy Trinity, St. Peter, St. Mary Shandon, St. Anne Shandon, St. Paul and St. Nicholas, all, except part of St. Finbarr's, within the city and suburbs, and those of Curricuppane, Carrigrohanemore, Kilcully, and Rathcoony, together with parts of the parishes of Killanully or Killingly, Carrigaline, Dunbullogue or Carrignavar, Ballinaboy, Inniskenny, Kilnaglory, White-church, and Templemichael, without those limits; and contains, according to the Ordnance survey, an area of 44,463 statute acres, of which, 2396 are occupied by the city and suburbs. The Grand Jury presentments for 1835 were as follow: new roads, bridges, &c, £611. 19. 7.; repairs of roads, bridges, &c, £2641. 14. 0 1/2.; public buildings, charities, officers' salaries, and miscellaneous expenses, £14,592. 1. 1.; police establishment, £1148. 14. 3.; repayment of advances by Government, £1254. 19. 6.; wide street commissioners for lighting, paving, &c, £8800; making a total of £29,049. 8. 5 1/2.
The parish of St. Finbarr is a rectory, appropriate to the dean and chapter and vicars choral. The tithes under the composition act amount to £990 per annum, of which £690 constitute the greater portion of the economy fund of the cathedral under the control and management of the dean and chapter, and £300 are payable to the vicars choral: a residentiary preacher with a stipend of £100, of which £50 is from the economy fund, and £50 from the respective members for discharging their turns of preaching; a reader, with a stipend of £75 paid by the vicars choral out of their estates, and a curate, who also acts as librarian, with a fixed stipend of £21 from the economy fund, are appointed for the ordinary performance of the ecclesiastical duties. The parish church, which is also the cathedral of the see of Cork, and is dedicated to the saint whose name it bears, was rebuilt between the years 1725 and 1735, and for defraying the expense a duty of 1s. per ton was imposed by act on all coal and culm imported into Cork for five years, from May 1st, 1736: it was newly roofed in 1817 at an expense of £617 from the economy fund. The new structure is of the Doric order, except the tower, supposed to be part of the ancient building, erected by Gilla-Aeda O'Mugin, in the 12th century, and is surmounted by a lofty octangular spire of hewn stone under which is the principal entrance; on the south is the chapter hall, where the consistorial court is held, on the north the vestry room; the choir is lighted by a fine Venetian window; the bishop's throne, of black Irish oak, and the prebendal stalls, are handsomely finished, and well arranged: a beautiful monument of white marble, erected to the memory of Chief Baron Tracton, whose body is interred in the cathedral, has been recently transferred from St. Nicholas' church to a conspicuous position in it. Near the cathedral is the bishop's palace, built between 1772 and 1789, during the prelacy of Dr. Mann, a large and well-constructed edifice, on the southern bank of the river Lee, surrounded by pleasure grounds and gardens, and containing some fine paintings, among which is a portrait of Dr. Lyons, concerning whose preferment to the see a traditionary story, but wholly unsupported by documentary evidence, relates, that having received a promise from Queen Elizabeth to be promoted to the first vacancy in her gift, in consequence of his gallant conduct as captain of a ship in several actions with the Spaniards, he applied for the bishoprick of Cork on the death of the bishop, and notwithstanding the objections made in consequence of his former profession, by urging his reliance on the royal promise, he was appointed to the see. On the south side of the cathedral is Dean's Court, a good modern house, the residence of the Dean. A chapel of ease to this parish has been erected at Blackrock, for the description of which, see Blackrock. The living of the parish of Christ-Church is a vicarage, in the patronage of the Bishop; the rectory constitutes the corps of the prebend of the same name in the cathedral church, and is in the gift of the Crown: the prebendary derives his income from lands at Blackrock, averaging in rent and renewal fines, £396. 18. 5 3/4 per annum; the endowment of the vicarage, arising solely from houses assessed to minister's money, amounts to about £650 per annum: it has neither glebe nor glebe-house. The old church was taken down in 1716, and rebuilt in 1720 by a tax of 1s. per ton on coal imported for 15 years: the steeple having afterwards sunk on one side so as to swerve 3 1/2 feet from the perpendicular, though without any fissures, thus presenting a very singular appearance, was lowered to the level of the roof and ultimately wholly removed, and the church rebuilt by the Messrs. Pain. The new structure is 97 feet by 57, its richly panelled ceiling rests on ranges of Ionic pillars of scagliola continued across the eastern end; along the northern and southern walls are galleries supported by Doric pilasters. Several of the lower columns, with parts of the floor, having been destroyed by the dry rot, Richard Beamish, Esq., civil engineer, in 1831, replaced the whole lower range of columns with pillars of cast iron without the smallest derangement of the upper columns, thus effectually securing the stability of the entire edifice. Several gravestones, some of the 16th century, and bearing emblematic devices, were discovered during the progress of the alterations. The living of St.Peter's is a rectory, united from time immemorial with the entire rectories of Nohoval, Kilmonogue, Dunbullogue, and Dunisky, together constituting the union and corps of the archdeaconry, in the patronage of the Bishop. The archdeacon's gross income is about £1000, arising from minister's money assessed on St. Peter's parish, from the tithes of the four rural parishes, and from reserved rents of houses, out of which he pays a perpetual and four stipendiary curates. The church, one of the most ancient in the city, formerly had as a steeple a tower detached from it considerably to the west, which once defended the city wall; its site is now occupied by an alms-house: the altar is ornamented with fluted Corinthian pilasters, and on its south side was a monument to the memory of Sir Matthew Deane and his lady, of the date of 1710, now removed to the further end of the church. The living of St. Mary's Shandon is a rectory and vicarage, with the rectory of St. Catharine, near Shandon, which has merged into it, united from time immemorial, and in the alternate patronage of the Duke of Leinster, and the Rev. Robert Longfield. There is neither glebe nor glebe-house: the tithes amount to £25, under the composition act, and the minister's money to £40 per ann., in addition to which the rector receives a rental of £95. 10. 9., from 7 houses in Shandon-street. This income is charged with the stipend of £75 per annum to a licensed curate. The church of the ancient parish of Shandon, which comprised the present parishes of St. Mary, St. Anne, and St. Paul, occupied the site of St. Anne's church, and from its proximity to Shandon castle, was several times damaged by contending factions and ultimately destroyed by the Irish about 1690: the present church, a neat edifice, was built in 1696, on a new site, and the Ecclesiastical Commissioners have lately granted £198. 19. 4. for its repairs. St. Anne's Shandon is a rectory, in the alternate patronage of the Duke of Leinster, and the Rev. Robert Longfield. It has neither glebe nor glebe-house. The tithes under the composition act amount to £240. 3. 5 1/2., and the minister's money is about £370 per annum. The church, a large and handsome edifice, with a tower of several stories, 120 feet high, was built by subscription in 1772, on the site of the old church of Shandon, and being erected on an eminence, is prominently conspicuous from most parts of the city: the Ecclesiastical Commissioners have granted £259. 9. 10. for its repairs. A chapel of ease to this parish was erected in 1836, near the Brickfields, in the later English style of architecture, from a design of Messrs. Pain, with a western tower surmounted by a light and elegant spire and two lofty pinnacles at the east end; capacious school-rooms have been formed below the level of the floor at the same end where the ground declines rapidly; the late Board of First Fruits granted £1000, and an equal sum was raised by subscription for the erection of this building. The living of St. Paul's is a rectory, in the alternate patronage of the Duke of Leinster, and the Rev. Robert Longfield. The parish was formed, in 1726, out of the districts of the East Marsh, in the parish of St. Mary Shandon, and Dunscombe's Marsh, in that of Christ-Church: the income, amounting to about £200 per ann., is derived solely from assessments of minister's money: there is neither glebe nor glebe-house. The church is a neat edifice in the Grecian style, built by subscription on the formation of the parish, and on ground granted by the corporation. The living of St. Nicholas' is a rectory, united by act of council in 1752 with those of St. Bridget, St. John of Jerusalem, St. Stephen, St. Mary de Narde, St. Dominic, and St. Magdalene, which together constitute the corps of the chancellorship, in the patronage of the Bishop. The income of the union is £293. 18. 0., arising from houses assessed to minister's money, the tithes of St. Magdalene amounting to £21, the tithes of St. Nicholas and houses producing £5. 18. 0. per ann. The church, formerly a chapel of ease to St. Finbarr's, was built in 1723 by contributions from Bishop Browne and others, and is a small neat edifice, situate in the southern part of the city. A free church, near the South Infirmary, is now nearly completed, and above St. Patrick's bridge the hulk of an old vessel forms the Bethel or Mariner's church. The church of St. Brandon, which was situate on the north side of the river, on the road to Youghal, has been entirely destroyed, but the cemetery is still in use.
The principal schools in connection with the Established Church are the following. St. Stephen's Blue Coat Hospital was founded pursuant to a grant of lands and tenements in the north and south liberties by the Honourable William Worth, by deed dated Sept. 2nd, 1699, now producing a rental of £443. 4. 4. which, with the interest of £500 saved by the trustees, is expended in the maintenance, clothing, and education of 22 boys, the sons of reduced Protestant citizens, and in aid of the support of four students at Trinity College, Dublin: it is under the superintendence of the mayor and council, who nominate the boys. The school premises are situated on an eminence in the parish of St. Nicholas, and comprise a good school-room, dining-hall, apartments for the governor, and suitable offices, with an enclosed playground in front. The Green Coat Hospital, in the churchyard of St. Anne's Shandon, was founded about 1715, chiefly through the exertions of some military gentlemen and others to the number of 25, who by an act passed in 1717 were incorporated trustees, for the instruction of 20 children of each sex in the rudiments of useful knowledge and the principles of the Protestant religion, and for apprenticing them at a proper age, with a preference to the children of military men who had served their country. No regular system appears to have been introduced prior to 1751, but subsequently 40 children were clothed and educated till 1812; the number has since been increased by aid of a parliamentary grant, and at present there are 40 boys and 28 girls in the school. The income amounts to £96. 7. 11 1/4. per annum, of which £83. 15. 11 1/4. arises from donations and bequests, and the remainder from annual subscriptions: the chief benefactors were Daniel Thresher, who devised the lands of Rickenhead, in the county of Dublin, now let for £26 per annum on lease, which will expire in 1844, when they will probably produce at least £100 per annum; and Francis Edwards, of London, who devised eleven ploughlands in the parish of Ballyvourney, let permanently for £11 per annum: a librarian and treasurer, chosen from among the trustees, act gratuitously. The building consists of a centre and two wings, the former containing two school-rooms and apartments for the master; in the west wing are a library and board-room, with apartments for the mistress; and the other wing contains lodging-rooms for about 38 poor parishioners. Deane's charity schools were founded under the will, dated in 1726, of Moses Deane, Esq., of this city, who devised the rents of certain premises held for a term of years in trust to the corporation, to accumulate until they should yield a sum of £1200 for the parishes of St. Peter, St. Nicholas, St. Mary Shandon, and Christ-Church respectively, which sums were to be invested in lands in the county of Cork, and the rents applied to the instruction and clothing of 20 boys and 20 girls of each parish. The portion of the bequest assigned to the parish of St. Peter having been paid, the school was re-opened in 1817, and now affords instruction to 30 boys and 35 girls, of whom 20 of each sex are clothed: the endowment produces £66. 17. per annum, and an additional sum of about £50 is raised annually by subscriptions and the proceeds of an annual sermon: these form the parochial schools of St. Peter's. The portion assigned to the parish of St. Nicholas was obtained by the Rev. Archdeacon Austin, and was afterwards vested in the hands of the commissioners for charitable bequests by the Rev. Dr. Quarry. In 1822 a grant was obtained, and a plain and commodious building containing two school-rooms was erected in Cove-street, to which, in 1831, the Rev. J. N. Lombard, the present rector, added a school-room for infants: there are now in these schools 76 boys and 99 girls, of whom 30 boys and 25 girls are clothed out of the funds, which now amount to £189. 14. 10. per annum, and the children receive a daily supply of bread. The portion belonging to St. Mary Shandon's was lost for many years, but by the exertions of Dr. Quarry, the present rector, £800 was recovered, which, by a legacy of £100 and accumulated interest, has been augmented to £2000 three and a half per cent. reduced annuities: a commodious building of red brick ornamented with hewn limestone, and containing apartments for the master and three spacious school-rooms with a covered play-ground for the children, was erected in 1833 under the superintendence of Dr. Quarry, at the cost of £743. 2. 6. collected by him for that purpose: the pupils amount to 64 boys and 46 girls. An infants' school affords instruction to 100 children: the entire average of attendance may be averaged at 200. A Sunday and an adult school are also held in the same building. The boys' and girls' schools are supported by a portion of the dividends arising from the funded property, and by local subscriptions, and a collection after a charity sermon; and the infants' school by a portion of the same dividends and subscriptions. The parish of Christ-Church obtained no portion of Deane's bequest, the lease of the premises from which it was payable having expired. The diocesan schools for the sees of Cork, Ross, and Cloyne, are situated in Prince's-street, and are attended by 60 pupils, of whom 14 are taught gratuitously. On the eastern side of the cathedral is a free school founded by Archdeacon Pomeroy for the instruction in reading, writing, and arithmetic, of ten boys, to be nominated by the bishop; the master's original salary of £10 having been augmented by the dean and chapter, and by a bequest by the late Mrs. Shearman, to £30, twenty boys are now instructed gratuitously and are also taught the mathematics. Attached to the school is a library, founded also by the archdeacon, and much enlarged by a bequest of the late Bishop Stopford: it contains more than 4000 volumes, chiefly valuable editions of the classics and works on Divinity, and is open gratuitously to the clergy of the diocese and the parishioners of St. Finbarr's.
According to the R. C. divisions, the city with the suburbs is divided into three unions or parishes, St. Mary's and St. Anne's, St. Peter's and St. Paul's, and St. Finbarr's. St. Mary's and St. Anne's comprises nearly the whole of the Protestant parishes of St. Mary, St. Anne, and St. Catherine: the duties are performed by the parish priest, who is the Bishop, six curates, and two chaplains. The parochial chapel, which is also the cathedral, is a spacious structure, with a plain exterior: the eastern end having been destroyed by an accidental fire, it was rebuilt, and, with the rest of the interior, decorated by the Messrs. Pain in the later English style of architecture: the altar-piece is extremely rich and similar to that of the abbey of St. Albans, in England. There are chapels of ease at Brickfields and Clogheen: the former, dedicated to St. Patrick, is a handsome edifice in the Grecian style by the Messrs. Pain: the principal front is ornamented by a lofty and elegant portico of eight columns of grey marble, not yet finished, and approached by a flight of steps, extending along the entire front: from the centre of the roof rises a cupola, supported by eight Corinthian columns, surmounted by figures representing as many of the Apostles; the whole topped by a pedestal and cross. This chapel was opened for divine service, October 18th, 1836. St. Peter's and Paul's, comprising the Protestant parishes of the same name, with portions of those of Christ-Church, St. Anne's, and St. Finbarr's, is a mensal of the Bishop: the duties are performed by an administrator and two curates. The parochial chapel, a plain edifice, built in 1786, has an elegant altar in the Corinthian style, with a fine painting of the Crucifixion. St. Finbarr's comprises the Protestant parish of St. Nicholas, most part of St. Finbarr's, and a small portion of that of Christ-Church: the duties are performed by a parish priest and four curates, one of whom resides near Blackrock, and officiates at the chapel of ease there, which is noticed under the article descriptive of that village. The parochial chapel is in Dunbar-street, a spacious building, erected in 1776, in form of a T: under the altar is a figure of a "dead Christ," of a single block of white marble, executed at Rome, at an expense of £500, by Hogan, a native or Cork. In the chapel is also a monument to the memory of the Rev. Dr. McCarthy, coadjutor bishop, in which he is represented in the act of administering the sacrament to a person labouring under malignant fever, thus expressing in the most lively manner the cause of his premature death. There are four friaries belonging severally to the Augustinians, Franciscans, Dominicans, and Capuchins; two monasteries for monks, one of the Presentation order, the other of the Christian Brotherhood; and two convents for nuns of the Presentation order, one in the southern and the other in the northern part of the city. The Augustinians had an institution, called Gill Abbey, founded by St. Finbarr, for canons regular of the order, largely endowed by Cormac Mac Carthy, King of Cork, and shortly afterwards completed by Gilla Aeda, bishop of the see, from whom it derived its name; it anciently formed the cathedral establishment. The present state of this and the other decayed monastic buildings in the city is described in the subsequent part of this article, which treats of its antiquities. The institution at present is situated in Brunswick-street, and consists of a prior and four priests: the chapel, erected in 1780, was much enlarged in 1827; over the altar is a good painting of the Crucifixion. The Franciscan monastery was founded in 1214, on the north side of the city, by Dermot Mac Carthy Reagh, and rebuilt in 1240 by Lord Philip Prendergast. The present institution, situated in Grattan-street, consists of a guardian and four priests: the chapel, a neat building, was erected in 1830 by subscription, at an expense of £4500. The Dominican friary was founded in 1229, by the Barry family, on an island on the south side of the city, whence it acquired the name of the Abbey of the Island. The institution is now situated in Dominic-street, on the site of Shandon castle, and consists of a prior and six priests. A new chapel, dedicated to St. Mary, is being erected on Pope's quay from a design gratuitously furnished by Kearnes Deane, Esq, who superintends its erection on a principle of similar liberality. When finished, it will consist of a portico of six Ionic columns with a triangular pediment surmounted by sculptured figures, with a stately portico, enriched with Corinthian pillars on each side, and topped by a dome with an octangular tambour. The interior, 112 1/2 by 100 feet, will be also enriched by ranges of Corinthian pillars; the cost will be defrayed both by voluntary subscriptions collected in the usual manner and by a weekly penny collection from the industrious and poorer classes. A Sunday school with about 500 pupils is attached to this body. The Capuchins' or Reformed Franciscans' institution, situated in Blackman's-lane, consists of a provincial, guardian, and three priests. The chapel was built by the celebrated Arthur O'Leary, who was a priest of this order. A new chapel has been commenced in 1823, on Charlotte's-quay, by the present provincial, the Very Rev. Theobald Matthews, who has contributed liberally to its expense, which has already amounted to £10,000; the remainder is derived from subscriptions and weekly collections. The structure, from a design and under the superintendence of Messrs. Pain, is built of a light grey limestone, and is already carried up as high as the roof; when finished, it will present a splendid specimen of the later English style, with a tower and spire, 200 feet high the front has a portico of three lofty arches resting on octagonal piers; between the centre piers is a rich screen, forming a kind of porch to the doorway. The piers, ten in number, are continued at the angles of the building, those not connected with the tower terminating like those of Hen. VII.'s chapel at Westminster, from which spring the exterior flying buttresses. Similar buttresses are introduced in connection with the turrets at the angles of the tower, which rise from a base just above the arches before mentioned. The tower will consist of two stories, having an open parapet of tracery passing round it, above which will rise the spire: the upper story of the tower and the lower portion of the spire wi!l be open, so managed as to combine strength and variety with airy lightness. The contract for the building was nearly £ 12,000, but it is estimated that the entire cost will exceed £20,000. The Sunday schools, under the care of the Josephian Society (the Very Rev. T. Matthews, patron), are composed of religious and well-educated young men who instruct 500 boys: the day schools are under the superintendence of 50 Ladies Governesses, five of whom attend every day and are assisted by a matron and instruct 500 girls; an infants' school for 350 children is under the direction of the same ladies, aided by a matron from the London parent institution. Evening schools for the instruction of apprentices and labouring boys are under the care of the same society. The Presentation Monastery, situated in Douglas-street, was established in 1827 in buildings previously occupied by the Nuns of the Presentation order. The community consists of a superior and ten brothers, who devote themselves to the instruction of the poor on a system embracing every branch of useful education. Attached to the dwelling is a spacious building, divided into four large apartments capable of accommodating 1000 boys; about 600 receive instruction and are apprenticed when at a proper age. The funds are derived from subscriptions and the proceeds of an annual sermon. The school owes its origin to the late Very Rev. Dean Collins, priest of the. parish, who contributed liberally towards the erection of the building, and also to its support. The Lancasterian school, at the end of Great George's-street, is conducted by this community; it is 80 feet by 60, and capable of accommodating 1000 pupils; it is attended by the same number, and supported in the same manner as the school previously described. The Christian Brotherhood was instituted in 1811; the present buildings, situated in Peacock-lane, were erected in 1815. The community consists of a superior and eight brothers, who devote themselves to the instruction of the poor in two schools, one in Peacock lane, the other on Sullivan's-quay: the former of these, two stories high and divided into six apartments, each 45 feet by 25, affords accommodation for 800 boys; in the latter about 300 attend. The schools are conducted and supported in the same manner as those of the Presentation Monastery. The community's dwelling-house is at a short distance from the former of these schools, on an elevated and commanding situation. The Presentation Convent, in Douglas-street, owes its origin to the late Miss Honora Nagle, who in 1777 erected a small building for that purpose; which being soon found too small for the increasing number of its inmates, the building now occupied by the parochial clergymen and by the monks of the Presentation order, was erected by the ladies and their friends, under the superintendence of the Very Rev. Dean Collins: the establishment has since become the parent house of the Presentation Institute in Ireland. After the decease of this lady, the new order was approved of by Pope Pius VI. and confirmed by Pius VII., under the title of "the Presentation of the Blessed Virgin Mary." Dean Collins, then the parish priest, purchased, in 1825, the interest of the present buildings (partly erected by Miss Nagle) from the Ursuline Nuns, who had removed to their present abode in Blackrock; and the present community of the Presentation Institute removed into them on Oct. 1st, 1827, from the buildings now occupied by the Parochial Clergy and the Monks of the Presentation order. The community consists of a superioress, 17 professed and 2 lay nuns, who devote their whole time to the gratuitous instruction of poor female children; the average attendance of pupils is about 500. The buildings, with the chapel, form a very respectable pile in an elevated situation. The remains of the foundress are interred in the cemetery within the grounds, and those of Dean Collins within the chapel, in which there is a neat marble slab erected to his memory. There is an almshouse for 20 poor old women in connection with it, chiefly supported by the ladies. The North Presentation convent was founded in Chapel-street in 1799, and removed to the present house in Clarence-street in. 1808. The community consists of a superioress, 14 professed nuns and two lay sisters, who devote their time to the same purpose as those in Douglas-street already described: the average attendance of children at the school is 600, one-third of whom are clothed annually by a subscription of the citizens: the buildings with the chapel form a handsome pile. A branch of the Sisters of Charity, Stanhope-street, Dublin, was established near the cathedral 10 years since; the community consists of six inmates, who go out to relieve the sick poor and to instruct them in the duties of religion.
The Presbyterians have two places of worship, one in connection with the Synod of Munster, and the other in connection with that of Ulster; each is of the first class. There are also two places of worship for Wesleyan Methodists, and one each for the Baptists, the Society of Friends, the Independents and the Primitive Methodists. The congregation belonging to the Synod of Munster is a Cromwellian establishment, and one of the oldest dissenting congregations in Cork: the place of worship, a commodious and well-arranged edifice, is in Princes's-street: a boys' and girls' school in connection with it, the pupils of which are clothed and apprenticed at a proper age, is supported by subscription and the proceeds of an annual sermon: there is also an almshouse, with accommodation for 15 inmates, but having only 9 at present in it; also a loan fund and a lending library. J. Pedder, Esq., bequeathed to the congregation £600, one half for the ministers, and the other for the poor; S. McCarthy also bequeathed £300 for the same purpose. Dr. Hincks, Greek professor in the Royal Belfast Academical Institution, and author of a Greek and English Lexicon and other works connected with classical literature, was minister of this congregation for many years. The congregation of the Synod of Ulster holds its devotional meetings in a large room in Tuckey-street, formerly the assembly-room belonging to Daly's Club-house. The Wesleyan Methodists' places of worship, both neat and commodious edifices, are in Henry-street and Patrick-street; attached to the former are a female day school and an infants' school; each has a Sunday school; all are supported by subscription. The Baptist place of worship is a plain building in Marl-borough-street. The meeting-house belonging to the Society of Friends consists of a large and convenient range of buildings lately erected in Grattan-street, on the site of the old meeting-house, and comprising an apartment for public worship, with committee-rooms attached to it, and, fronting the street, a commodious dwelling-house for the resident care-taker and for reduced aged and infirm members: the expense, amounting to £4200, was defrayed by a subscription of its own members. The Independent meeting-house, in Old George's-street, was built by Messrs. Pain in 1829, at an expense of about £3000; it is an oblong edifice, 80 feet by 40, with two semicircular appendages; and in front is a small portico of four fanciful columns resembling the Corinthian order; the ceiling is arched and richly pannelled. The Primitive Methodists have their place of worship in French Church-street.
In addition to the schools already noticed are many more in the different parishes of the city and suburbs, supported principally by annual grants, local subscriptions, and collections after charity sermons. In Christ-Church parish are the male and female parochial schools, of which the boys' school has an endowment of £15 late currency bequeathed by Mrs. Shearman; an infants' school, and several Sunday schools. In the parish of St. Anne Shandon are the male and female parochial schools; the parochial infants' school; the Brickfields' National schools, aided by grants from the National Board, and several Sunday schools. A school in George's-street was established in 1822, principally by the exertions of Dr. P. Kehoe, for the instruction of deaf and dumb children, into which, since its foundation, 60 children have been admitted; of these, 30 have been withdrawn by their parents from time to time; 15 have been apprenticed; 4 died, and 11 are at present in attendance. Here is a branch of the Juvenile Auxiliary Society to the National Institution for the deaf and dumb at Claremont, near Dublin. In the parish of St. Finbarr are the parochial male school, aided by an annual subscription of £20 from the dean and chapter, and a bequest of £10 per annum late currency from Mrs. Shearman; the parochial female school, a National school for boys at Blackrock, a school supported by subscriptions, and several Sunday schools. In the parish of St. Mary Shandon are a National school for boys and girls in Blarney-lane, and another at Sunday's Well: the latter was erected in 1835, at an expense of £340, of which the National Board of Education contributed £186, and the remainder was defrayed by subscription; it is a neat building of two apartments each 52 feet by 24, and affords instruction to about 350 of each sex. In the parish of St. Nicholas the Masonic Female Orphan Asylum, Cove-street, was founded in 1820, in which the children are maintained, clothed, educated, and apprenticed to trades or other useful occupations: from its commencement to July 31st, 1836, 60 children have been admitted, of whom 40 have been apprenticed: the expense for that year was about £300: the parish also contains a friary school for girls, and an infants' school adjoining the chapel of the Capuchins, a friary and Sunday and evening school for girls, and a Sunday school in connection with the Established Church. In the parish of St. Paul are a Protestant free school for boys and girls, several of whom are clothed, and, under the same roof, an infants' school; a free school for girls, endowed with the dividends on £450 three and a half per cent. consol. bank annuities; and two Sunday schools. In the parish of St. Peter are a school for girls adjoining the chapel of St. Peter and St. Paul, under the superintendence of a committee of ladies, and aided by the interest of a bequest from the late Mr. Rochford; St. Patrick's asylum for orphans, under the superintendence of the R. C. clergyman, in which 20 boys and 20 girls are boarded, lodged, clothed, and educated, and at a proper age apprenticed, and which is supported by subscriptions and a collection after a charity sermon, amounting to about £220 per annum; a school for girls, and an infants' school in connection with the Wesleyan Methodists; and several Sunday schools. These schools altogether, exclusively of the Sunday schools, afford instruction to about 3750 boys and 3250 girls; there are also 45 private pay schools, in which about 1150 boys and 740 girls are taught.
The Foundling Hospital, in Leitrim-street, was opened in 1747 It is governed by an incorporated board, consisting of the diocesan, the mayor, recorder, aldermen, sheriffs, common-councilmen and common-speaker, with 26 of the commonalty, elected by the D'Oyer Hundred, and is maintained by a local tax on coal and culm, weigh-house fines, carriage licenses and penalties on car drivers, amounting to about £5500 annually. The infants, received periodically from the churchwardens, are placed out at nurse till they are six or seven years old, when they become inmates until of an age to be apprenticed. The average number of the former class is 1000 and of the latter 400. They are educated as Protestants and bound to Protestant masters. Good conduct during apprenticeship is rewarded by a gratuity of three guineas. The building is a small quadrangle, of which the chapel forms one side; the other three are appropriated to school-rooms (two for the boys and two for the girls), dormitories, and other necessary apartments. A resident chaplain superintends the details of the institution. The North Infirmary, adjoining the churchyard of St. Anne's, Shandon, was formed in 1744 by the members of a musical society, who appropriated their surplus funds for its support, and by individual subscriptions, and was established by an act passed in 1752; it is supported by a Grand Jury presentment of £250, a grant of £50 from Government, and voluntary subscriptions, all which together, with funded property arising from bequests, amounts to about £500 per annum. In 1829 Mr. Sampayo, a native of the city, but resident in London, contributed £1000 for the enlargement of the hospital accommodation, which having been increased by a bequest of £500 from Mr. Rochford and by other subscriptions, amounting in all to £3200, the trustees determined to erect a new building capable of containing 100 beds, on the ground belonging to the old infirmary. The building, erected by Mr. Hill, a resident architect, consists of a plain structure, of three stories, forming three sides of a quadrangle, 100 feet in front, with lateral returns of 75 feet each. The ground floor is appropriated to the dispensary department and to accommodation for officers; the two upper stories are laid out in wards. The expense of its erection was £3760.13.6. Its affairs are conducted by a board of trustees partly official and partly elected annually. The number of patients during 1835 was, interns, cured 227, relieved 30, died 8, remaining at the close of the year 30; total, 295 externs, cured or relieved, 14,606; general total, 14,901. The income for the same year was £1703.12.2., and the expenditure, £1559.4.6., from which latter item is to be deducted £800 paid to the architect on account of the building, leaving £759.4.6. for the current annual expenses of the institution. The South Infirmary was established under the 11th and 12th of Geo. III., and is supported by a similar presentment of £250 late currency from the Grand Jury, an annual grant of £50 by the Government, and subscriptions amounting to about £200 per annum. The building contains about 32 beds, and is well adapted to its purpose; the wards are large and well ventilated. The number admitted in 1835 was 381, of whom 243 were discharged cured, 76 relieved, 25 died, 6 absconded, and 30 remained on Jan. 1st, 1836; during the same year, 14,354 externs were cured or relieved. An attempt was some time since made by the trustees to unite these infirmaries and constitute them a general hospital both for the county and the county of the city of Cork, and to erect a large building sufficient for the purpose; this arrangement being subsequently limited to the union of the infirmaries only, an act was procured in the 2nd and 3rd of Wm. IV., but from some difficulty which arose the design was ultimately abandoned. The Fever Hospital and House of Recovery, established in 1802, and supported by annual subscriptions and Grand Jury presentments, is situated in an airy part of the north suburbs; and from its opening to the 31st of Oct., 1836, not less than 51,085 patients have been admitted. In 1816 a detached building, capable of containing 80 beds, was added to it, into which, during the prevalence of cholera, 775 patients of that class were admitted. The building is spacious, well arranged, and thoroughly ventilated, and contains 200 beds: the total expenditure for the year 1835 amounted to £1295. 17. 10. The Lying-in Hospital, on the Mardyke parade, was established in 1798, and is supported by subscription under the superintendence of a committee of ladies; it contains 12 beds, and, in 1835, 368 poor women participated in the benefits of the establishment. The Cork Midwifery Dispensary and Institution for Diseases of Women and Children was opened in Brown-street in 1834, and is supported by subscription. The Cork General Dispensary, Humane Society, and Cow-pock Institution was established in 1787, and is supported by Grand Jury presentments, donations, and subscriptions: in the year ending April 1st, 1836, not less than 11,198 patients received medical and surgical relief from this establishment, of whom 5066 were relieved in their own dwellings. The Lunatic Asylum for the county and city is situated on the Blackrock road, and is connected with the House of Industry adjoining, and under the direction of the same board of governors; the house, though spacious, is not adapted for complete classification; a considerable piece of ground in front enclosed with a high wall is used as a place of recreation for the patients, and is cultivated by them; the number in 1836 was 370, which is 70 more than can be properly accommodated; the institution is supported by presentments on the county and county of the city, apportioned by sharing equally certain fixed expenses, and by contributing to the maintenance of the inmates according to the number sent from each: the annual average expenditure amounts to £4000. The asylum is under the medical superintendence of Dr. Osburne, and of a moral governor, the former of whom has a private establishment at Lindville for the reception of insane patients, beautifully situated on a limestone rock gently sloping to the river, of which it commands a pleasing view; and attached to it is an enclosed demesne of 14 acres, affording extensive walks and ample means of recreation to the patients under his care. The House of Industry is an extensive building, affording accommodation to 1200 inmates, who are always under its roof, and of whom two-thirds are women; these are employed in household work, washing, spinning, plain work, weaving, and platting straw; and the males in picking oakum, weaving, quarrying and breaking stones for the roads, and in cleaning the streets. The establishment contains two medical and surgical hospitals, in which are 150 beds; and there are three schools for boys and girls, each under a separate teacher. It is supported by Grand Jury presentments, the labour of the inmates, collections at charity sermons, and by subscriptions and donations; and is conducted with the greatest regard to the comfort and moral improvement of the inmates. The Magdalene Asylum, in Peacock-lane, was founded in 1809 by Nicholas Therry, Esq., for the protection and reformation of penitent females of dissolute habits, who now contribute to their own maintenance by honest industry. The County and City of Cork Refuge, in Deane-street, instituted in 18-25 for destitute females, and more especially for female liberated prisoners, is supported by subscription; there are at present 30 inmates in this institution. There are various almshouses, principally of parochial character, among which the chief are the corporation almshouses, and those of the parishes of St. Finbarr, St. Nicholas, Christ-Church, and St. Peter and St. Paul; the almshouses in connection with the South Presentation convent, founded by Miss Nagle for aged women; and St. John's Asylum, in Douglas-street, for aged men, the two latter of Roman Catholic origin. Capt. Bretridge, in 1683, devised the lands of East Drumcummer to the corporation for ever, in trust for the payment of 10s. 6d. weekly to seven poor old Protestant men that had been soldiers, the surplus to be applied in apprenticing the children of poor soldiers of the Protestant religion in the city and liberties, or in default of such, the children of other poor Protestant parents; the present income is £258 per annum. In 1584, Stephen Skiddy bequeathed to the mayor and aldermen £24 per annum, to be paid by the Vintners' Company of London, and to be distributed among ten poor, honest, and aged persons of the city. Almshouses were built for each of these charities, and in 1718 a new house was erected for both near the Green Coat Hospital, at an expense of £1150, arising from the sale of the former site; the piazzas were subsequently added at the expense of some benevolent individuals: the annual income of Skiddy's charity, arising from the original bequest and the rents of certain premises granted by the corporation in 1702, is now £235. 18., and is expended in the support of 41 aged widows and five aged men, who have apartments in the almshouse. Mr. William Masterson bequeathed £30 per annum to the poor of the parish of St. Mary, of which sum, £16 is distributed in sums of £2 to poor Protestant tradesmen, £10 is given as marriage portions to two Protestant female servants married to Protestant tradesmen, and the remaining £4 to the Green Coat Hospital. In 1832, W. Lapp, Esq., bequeathed £30,000 for the support of poor old Protestants in the city; but the will not being properly attested to pass freehold estates, the heir resists payment; it, is, however, thought that the personal property will be sufficient to pay nearly the whole of the bequest. There are various societies for the diffusion of religious knowledge. The charitable loan fund originated in the establishment of a society for the relief of poor confined debtors by Henry Shears, in 1774; by a deed dated March 30th, 1785, trustees were empowered by the Musical Society of Dublin to lend money, at first free of interest, to industrious tradesmen in sums from £2 to £5, but subsequently with a charge of 1s. interest on each loan of £3 under the authority of the act of the 4th of Geo. IV. cap. 32. The funds are now entirely appropriated to the purposes of the loan society, and are lent in sums of £3, the borrower giving security for repayment by weekly instalments of 2s. 6d.: the number of families repaying the loan in 1834 was 1150.
Among the remains of antiquity one of the most ancient was Gill Abbey, which, after standing 980 years, fell down in 1738; no vestiges of it can now be traced, but near the site is a cave, anciently called the cave of St. Finbarr, and several fragments of stone pillars and other sculptured ornaments have been lately turned up on the spot. An Augustinian monastery, also on the south side of the town, is the only one of which there are any remains: it is stated by various writers to have been founded at different periods, by some in the reign of Edw. I., by others in that of Hen. V. or VI., and by some even so late as 1472 or 1475; the remains consist of the tower, which is 64 feet high, and is called the Red abbey. The Franciscan monastery had a stately church in which many illustrious persons were interred, but it is now entirely demolished, and Hebert's-square is built on its site. On digging the foundations of the buildings in this square in 1836, a stone curiously sculptured with the date 1567 marked on it was discovered, also a plate of metal 34 inches by 30, now in Mr. Hebert's possession, on which is represented the Nativity, accompanied by a long description, apparently in Dutch. The site of the Dominican friary, called the Abbey of St. Mary of the Island, is now occupied by Mr. O'Keefe's distillery. A nunnery, dedicated to St. John the Baptist, and from which St. John's-street took its name, was founded early in the 14th century; the site was discovered a few years since, when several tombstones were dug up near the spot. St. Stephen's priory for lepers was founded in the south suburbs, at a very early period, on the site now occupied by the Blue Coat Hospital; and a Benedictine priory is said to have been founded by King John on the south side of the city, and made a cell to the English abbey at Bath. Bourke mentions a house of White friars and a preceptory of Knights Templars, of which not the slightest vestiges can be traced. Of the ancient walls of the city, with their circular towers, there are considerable remains near the North bridge, and in the rear of the foundry the wall is perfect: of the fortifications in and near it, the last, which was called from its founder Skiddy's castle, was taken down in 1785. A mint was established in the city after the English settlement, but the specimens of coinage are extremely scarce; the earliest extant are silver pennies and halfpennies of the reign of Edw. I., which have on the obverse the king's head within a triangle, with the inscription EDW: R: ANGL: DUX: HYB:. Among the writers who have contributed to elevate the literary character of the city, exclusively of professional writers, are Arthur Murphy, the translator of Tacitus, and author of several successful tragedies and comedies; O'Keefe, the writer of comedies; Edw. Murphy, editor of Lucian; the celebrated Arthur O'Leary, equally distinguished for his wit, learning, and eloquence, and his biographer the Rev. Thos. England; Thos. Crofton Croker, author of "Fairy Legends" and other works illustrative of Irish customs and superstitions; James Roche, author of several articles on the history and descent of the principal commoners of the empire; Dr. Wood, a writer on natural history and on the antiquities of Ireland; John O'Driscol, late judge of Dominica, who published a work in two volumes on the state of Ireland; the Rev. Thos. Townsend, author of the statistical survey of the county of Cork; Dr. Maginn, a principal contributor to Fraser's Magazine; the Rev. Dr. Hincks, already noticed as a former minister of the Presbyterian congregation in connection with the Synod of Munster; Henry Uppington, a writer on various scientific subjects; the writer of the articles in Fraser's Magazine, under the fictitious name of Father Prout, is a native of this city; Richard Milliken, both a poet and a painter; Miss Milliken, writer of several novels. Of eminent painters, Cork is the native place of the celebrated Barry, professor of Painting in the Royal Academy of London, a man equally memorable for his genius, his eccentricities, and his spirit of independence; also Butt, Grogan, Ford, and McAlise: Hogan the sculptor is a native of this city. Cork gives the title of Earl to the senior branch of the noble family of Boyle.
THE MARKET TOWN OF
as described in
Lewis's Topographical Dictionary of Ireland, 1837MIDLETON, an incorporated market and post-town, and a parish, in the barony of IMOKILLY, county of CORK, and province of MUNSTER, 13 miles (E.) from Cork, and 137 1/2 (S. W.) from Dublin; containing 6599 inhabitants, of which number, 2034 are in the town. This place, called anciently Chore Abbey and Castrum Chor, derived both its origin and ancient name from the foundation of a Cistercian monastery, in 1182, by Barry Fitzgerald, who placed in it monks from the abbey of Nenay or Magio, in the county of Limerick. The abbey, from its situation near a ford, was called the "abbey of St. Mary de Chore ;" and the village which afterwards arose near it was for the same reason called Bally-na-Chore, (now Ballinacurra), or "the town on the ford," which, previously to the incorporation of the town, was also the name of the parish. The present town, deriving its name from its situation on the road from Youghal to Cork, at a nearly equal distance from each place, is pleasantly situated at the head of the vale of Imokilly, in a healthy and fertile country, screened by lofty hills and embellished with handsome seats; and on an inlet of the north-eastern angle of Cork harbour, which is navigable for vessels of 300 tons' burden to Ballinacurra: it consists principally of one main street, from the centre of which another branches off to the east, and contains 247 houses, most of which are uniformly built and of handsome appearance. The inhabitants are amply supplied with excellent water from springs; and there are two rivers, the Avannachora, or Midleton river, which bounds the town on the west and falls into the inlet about a mile below it; and the Rocks-borough river, which skirts its southern part and flows into the former. Both rivers abound with salmon and trout, and over each is a handsome stone bridge. Great improvements have been made since the year 1824, and others are in progress; several new buildings have been erected in the town and along its approaches, and a new line of road has been opened, forming a handsome western entrance. There are two news-rooms; and races are held in February. In addition to the traffic which this place derives from its situation on a great public thoroughfare, it possesses, by means of its creek from Cork harbour, which extends to the rear of the town, all the advantages of a sea-port. At Bailick, about a quarter of a mile below the town, are very commodious quays, accessible to vessels of 300 tons' burden, which may lie alongside and load and unload in security; also some extensive store-houses, where coal, timber, iron, slate, and other heavy goods are landed and warehoused: and within a mile of the town is the convenient port of Ballinacurra. At both these places are very spacious stores for grain, and large quantities of wheat and oats are annually shipped for Liverpool and Bristol. The port of Ballinacurra is a member of that of Cork, and a deputy-water-bailiff is placed there to collect the dues claimed by the Harbour Board, and the Foundling hospital of that city. An attempt to introduce the woollen manufacture was made some years since by Marcus Lynch, Esq., a merchant of Cork, who erected spacious buildings, which he furnished with requisite machinery for conducting it on a very extensive scale. The enterprise, however, was not attended with success, and the buildings and site were purchased by government for £20,000 and converted into a military station, chiefly for regiments preparing for embarkation. On the breaking up of this latter establishment, the premises became the property of Lord Midleton, from whom they were purchased, in 1825, by Messrs. Murphy and Co., who converted them into a very extensive distillery and malting establishment, at present producing 400,000 gallons of whiskey annually, and affording employment to 180 persons. On the Midleton river are the distillery and malt-works of Messrs. Hackett, erected in 1824, producing annually 200,000 gallons of whiskey, and employing 60 persons. On the same river are the boulting-mills of Messrs. Allin, which have been much enlarged, and are now, in addition to their water-power, worked by a steam-engine, erected in 1835; they manufacture about 3000 bags of flour annually. There are also two very large breweries and two extensive malting establishments. The produce of these several works is exclusively for home consumption, and the amount of duty paid to Government by their proprietors collectively exceeds £100,000 per annum. At Bailick are the extensive lime-works of G. Swayne, Esq.; and within two miles of the town are Milltown mills, lately erected by Messrs. Swayne and Leech, at an expense of £3000, and manufacturing annually 12,000 barrels of fine" flour. The market is on Saturday, but, from its proximity to the markets of Cork and Youghal, is confined chiefly to the sale of butchers' meat, poultry, dairy produce, and potatoes. The chartered fairs are on May 14th, July 5th, Oct. 10th, and Nov. 22nd; and two fairs recently established are held on Feb. 14th and Sept. 10th. The market-house is a handsome building, surmounted by a turret, in which is the town clock, and crowned with a cupola; it was erected in 1789, and is the property of Viscount Midleton, who is lord of the manor; the lower part contains the shambles, weigh-house, and accommodations for the market; and the upper part contains an elegant assembly-room, and council-chambers for the use of the corporation; but they are now used principally as news-rooms. A chief constabulary police force is stationed in the town.The town received a charter of incorporation from Chas. II., in the 22nd of his reign, dated June 10th, 1670, which granted to Sir John Brodrick, Knt., that his estate should be constituted the manor of Midleton, with a seneschal, a court baron, and a court of record with jurisdiction within the manor to the amount of £200; and that the town, with the castle and lands of Castle-Redmond and Corabbey, part of the said manor, should be a free borough and corporation, under the designation of the "borough and town of Midleton." By this charter the corporation consists of a sovereign, two bailiffs, twelve free burgesses, and an indefinite number of freemen, assisted by a recorder, town-clerk, and other officers. The sovereign, who is a justice of the peace within the borough, and the two bailiffs, are annually chosen from the burgesses by a majority of that body, by whom also freemen are admitted by favour only. The recorder, who is also town-clerk and seneschal of the manor, is appointed by the lord of the manor. The limits of the borough comprise an area of 100 acres encircling the town. Under the charter the corporation continued to return two members to the Irish parliament till the Union; when the borough was disfranchised. The manorial court of record, formerly held by the seneschal every three weeks, for the recovery of debts not exceeding £200 late currency, has not been held since 1832. The general quarter sessions for the East Riding of the county are held here in June and November. The court-house is a neat and commodious edifice of hewn limestone, situated at the western entrance into the town; and adjoining it is a small but well-arranged bridewell.The parish, which is also called Castra-na-chore, comprises 5320 statute acres, as applotted under the tithe act ; the soil, though in some parts light, is fertile, and the system of agriculture greatly improved; there is neither waste land nor bog. The substratum is generally limestone, which is quarried for agricultural and building purposes; and the surrounding scenery is pleasingly diversified, and in many points highly picturesque. The principal seats are Cahirmore, the property of Lord Midleton, at present occupied by his lordship's agent, T. Poole, Esq.; Bally-Edmond, the residence of R. Courtenay, Esq.; Broomfield House, of D. Humphreys, Esq.; Killeagh Farm, of W. Welland, Esq.; Charleston, of the Rev. R. Deane Freeman; Ballinacurra Lodge, of T. H. Rumley, Esq.; and Lake View, of S. Fleming, Esq. The living is a rectory and vicarage, in the diocese of Cloyne, and in the patronage of the Bishop; the tithes amount to £897. 16. 7. The glebe-house, a large and handsome residence, is pleasantly situated; and the glebe comprises 15 acres of good land. The church, erected in 1823 at an expense of £3000, a loan from the late Board of First Fruits, is a handsome structure, in the later English style, with an embattled tower crowned with pinnacles, and surmounted by a light and elegant spire, erected after a design and under the immediate superintendence of Messrs. Pain: it was recently repaired by aid of a grant of £202 from the Ecclesiastical Commissioners. In the churchyard is a mausoleum of grey marble, in the Grecian style, having in front a pediment resting on two lofty pillars, between which is a tablet of white marble, inscribed to Charles Brodrick, D.D., Archbishop of Cashel, and formerly rector of the parish, fourth son of George, Viscount Midleton; and to his wife, the Hon. Lady Brodrick, second daughter of R. Woodward, D.D., Bishop of Cloyne, by their seven surviving children. In the R. C. divisions the parish is the head of a union or district, comprising also the parishes of Ballyspillane, Inchynebacky, Mogeeshy, and Ballyouteragh; the chapel, near the eastern extremity of the town, is a spacious edifice, and there is also a chapel at Ballintoretis. A convent of nuns of the order of the Presentation has been recently completed; it is a handsome building on the road to Ballinacurra, and consists of a centre and two wings, one of which forms the domestic chapel, and the other a school-room for girls, who are gratuitously taught by the ladies of the convent. This is one of the institutions of that order, for the erection of which Miss Gould, a sister in the Presentation convent of Doneraile, bequeathed £10,000. A college was founded here, in 1709, by Lady Elizabeth Villiers, afterwards Countess of Orkney, who endowed it with lands in the baronies of Kinnalea, Kerrycurrihy, and Carbery, in this county, vested in trustees, with power to appoint the master. These estates were let by the trustees in perpetuity at a reserved rent of £200 per ann., of which £100 is paid as a salary to the master; in this school have been educated several eminent men, among whom was the Rt. Hon. John Philpot Curran; it is now a seminary of very high character. Nearly 500 children are taught in four public schools, of which the parochial male and female schools are supported by Lord Midleton, who provided both school-rooms, and a residence each for the master and mistress, and by the rector. There are a dispensary and a fever hospital, the latter a handsome building. At Bailick are some remains of Castle Redmond, built by Redmond Fitzgerald, or Fitz-Edmund in the reign of Hen. VIII., and in which the last R. C. Bishop of Cloyne, prior to the Reformation, was born. There are at Cahir-more some remains of the castle built, in 1579, by R. Fitzgerald, or Barry, from which the seneschal of Imokilly was driven out by Capt. Raleigh, in 1580, and obliged to take refuge in Chore abbey, which was formerly in the churchyard of Midleton, whence he was also compelled to retreat by the same assailant. The abbey, which was a stately edifice of great strength, was built by the Knights Templars in 1298, and the last remains of it were taken down to afford a site for the present church. At Coppingerstown are the ruins of a castle of the Fitzgeralds; on the south side of the town are some very slight remains of an hospital, founded by Edw. I. at Ballinacurra are the ruins of the old parish church, and at Ballyannan are the remains of the mansion built by the first Lord Midleton. A large belt and the horns of a moose deer were found in a bog on Lord Midleton's estate; and on Killeagh Farm were found numerous silver coins of the reign of Elizabeth. Midleton gives the title of Viscount to the family of Brodrick.
THE CIVIL PARISH OF CLOYNEas described inLewis's Topographical Directory of Ireland, 1837
a market and post-town, a parish, and the seat of a diocese, in the
barony of IMOKILLY, county of CORK, and province of MUNSTER, 14 miles
(E. by S.) from Cork city, and 126 (S. W. by S.) from Dublin, on the
road from Middleton to the sea; containing 6410 inhabitants, of which
number, 2227 are in the town.THE PARISH VILLAGE OF
originated in the foundation of the see of Cloyne by St. Colman, who
died in 604. In 701, an abbey was lot erected on the west side of the
cathedral, which was plundered in 978 by the people of Ossory, and
again, in 1089, by Dermot, the son of Fiordhealbhach O'Brien.
town is pleasantly situated in a level or slightly undulating plain,
and is well sheltered by rising grounds and plantations, which give
great amenity to the climate. It comprises two streets intersecting
each other at right angles, and contains 330 houses, most of which are
small and irregularly built. The bishop's palace is a large edifice,
built by Bishop Crow, in 1718, and enlarged by several of the
succeeding prelates. The grounds are well arranged, and near the house
is a noble terrace, extending the whole length of the garden. The
palace and demesne were leased, in 1836, by the Ecclesiastical
Commissioners, to H. Allen, Esq., for 999 years, at a rent of £450 per
annum, a fine of £2000, and £1300 for the timber : Mr. Allen intends to
take down all the old part of the palace. The only manufacture is that
of brogues and hats, which employs about 100 persons. The market is
held on Thursday. and is well attended by buyers from Cove (Cobh) and
Cork. Fairs are held on Feb. 24th, Easter and Whit-Tuesdays, Aug. 1st,
Sept. 12th, and Dec. 5th, for the sale of horses, cattle, sheep, pigs,
and implements of husbandry. It is a constabulary police station. The
bishop, who is lord of the manor, appoints a seneschal, who holds a
court-lee: annually, and a manor court once in three weeks. Petty
sessions are held every second Wednesday.
parish comprises 10,324 acres, of which 9552 are subject to tithe ; the
remainder consists of the bishop's lands, or those belonging to an
ancient hospital, upon which part of the town is built. The soil is
good, particularly in the valley, where it rests on a substratum of
limestone. At Carrigacrump is a quarry of fine marble, somewhat similar
to the Italian dove-coloured marble ; it is the property of Col.
Hooden, The parish is intersected by that of Kilmahon, which entirely
separates from it the village and ploughland of Ballycotton, forming
the extreme western point of the coast in Ballycotton bay.
Besides the Episcopal palace, the principal seats are Kilboy House, the residence of F.
Esq. ; Kilcrone, of J. Banning, Esq. ; Barnabrow, of J. R. Wilkinson,
Esq ; the Residentiary-house, of the Rev. W. Welland; Cloyne House, the
seat of H. Allen, Esq. ; the residence of the Rev. Dr. Hingstom
Vicar-General of the diocese ; Jamesbrook Hall, of R. W. G. Adams, Esq.
; and Ballybane, of T. Gaggin, Esq. Not far from the town are
Rostellan, the seat of the Marquess of Thomond, and Castle-Mary, of the
Rev. R. Longingly.
the village of Ballycotton, four miles from Cloyne, a new district
church was built in 1835, by subscription, at an expense of £330; the
curate is paid by the dean and chapter and vicars choral of Cloyne, as
appropriators of this parish, and by the precentor, as rector of
Church-town, the district church being for the accommodation of both
parish is in the diocese of Cloyne and is the head of a Roman Catholic
union or district, composing the parishes of Cloyne, Churchtown,
Kilmahon, and part of Kilteskin ; the chapel at Cloyne is a large,
plain, old edifice.
diocesan school is united to that of Cork. The Cloyne Free School and
charity were founded by Bishop Crow, by will dated Oct. 4th, 1726, in
which he bequeathed the farm at Bohermore, and the small burgage of
Cloyne for the maintenance of poor Protestant boys, after paying £8 per
ann. to the widows and orphans of clergymen of the diocese. The present
income exceeds £200 per annum, and ten boys are maintained, clothed,
and educated for three years, at the expiration of which ; they are
apprenticed, with a premium of £4 each. Six Chorister boys are also
educated, supported, and clothed by the dean and chapter, and 14 free
boys of the town are educated at this establishment. The school-house
was erected in 1814, out of the accumulated funds of the charity, on
land given by Bishop Bennett. There are also two national schools, in
which are 550 boys and 366 girls.
fund for lending sums not exceeding £2 has long existed in the town, to
which Bishop Brinkley contributed £70, and which circulates about £600
annually. A benevolent society for the relief of sick and indigent
room-keepers is supported partly by voluntary contributions, and partly
by the profits and tolls of the fairs and market, which were
transferred to this charity, in 1833 by the late Bishop Brinkley, and
are continued by the present Bishop of Cork and Cloyne. A fund for
relieving the widows of the clergy of the diocese was established in
1828, which, in June 1835, had accumulated to £953. Here is also a
parochial Protestant almshouse for poor persons, who receive a weekly
allowance from the Sunday collections in the cathedral; also a fever
hospital and dispensary.
the western entrance to the cathedral is one of the ancient round
towers, which, in 1835, was surrounded with an iron railing, at the
expense of the dean and chapter, by whom it is kept in repair. This
ancient structure is perfect, except the top ; the original building is
92 feet high, and a modern castelated addition has made the entire
height 102 feet ; it is quite cylindrical from top to bottom, its
uniform form diameter being 9 feet, and the walls being 33 inches
thick. The tower is divided into five floors or stages, which are
nearly perfect ; the upper story contains a bell, which was presented
to the cathedral by Dean Davies in 1683, and hung here, the cathedral
having no bell tower. At that time the top of the tower was open, and
the bell attracted the lightning, by which it was cracked; the
castellated part was therefore added for its protection. Of the ancient
abbey founded in 707, or the hospital founded in 1326, there are no
vestiges except the lands of the latter, which are still called the
small castle was erected here in the 14th century, by Bishop John de
Cumba, but was destroyed by the Fitz-Edmunds after the Reformation. At
Ballymaloe is a curious old house, built by the Fitzgeralds, who
forfeited it in the war of 1641, and now the property of Mr. Forster ;
in the hall are two very large pair of elks horns. In the neighbourhood
are several very extensive natural caves in the limestone district, in
some of which are very pure and beautiful stalactites.
CHURCHTOWN, BALLINTEMPLE, OR BALLYGOURNEY as described in Lewis's Topographical Dictionary of Ireland, 1837
CHURCHTOWN, or BALLINTEMPLE, a parish, in the barony of IMOKILLY, county of CORK, and province of MUNSTER, 4 miles (S. E.) from Cloyne ; containing 1756 inhabitants.
This parish, called also Ballygourney, is situated on St. George’s channel, and comprises 4730 statute acres, as applotted under the tithe act and valued at £2123. 19s. 8d., per annum. The greater part of the surface is hilly; the soil generally is light and shallow, resting wholly on a substratum of clay-slate, and the lands are principally under tillage. The village consists of 35 dwellings, most of which are small mud cabins roofed with thatch. Between this parish and that of Kilmahon is a detached portion of the parish of Ballyoughtra, called Snugborough, containing 92 acres, and more than two miles distant from the main body of that parish.
The living is a rectory and vicarage, in the diocese of Cloyne, and is part of the union of Lisgoold, and the corps of the precentorship in the cathedral church of St. Colman, Cloyne. The tithes amount to £500. 5s. The old parish church has long been in ruins; but a district church for this parish and that of Ballycotton was erected in 1835, at an expense of £330., raised by subscription. The glebe comprise seven acres in two portions.
In the Roman Catholic divisions the parish forms part of the union of Cloyne ; the chapel is a small neat edifice.
The male and female parochial school for this parish and those of Kilmahon and Ballycotton is situated at Ballybraher, and is supported by subscription; and there are two pay schools.
There are two coast-guard stations, situated respectively at Ballyandrein and Ballycotton, within the Youghal district.
THE PARISH VILLAGE OF
BALLYCOTTONas described inLewis's Topographical Dictionary of Ireland, 1837
BALLYCOTTON, a village and plough-land, in the parish of CLOYNE, barony of IMOKILLY, county of CORK, and province of MUNSTER, 4 miles (S. E.) from Cloyne ; containing 856 inhabitants.This is an isolated portion of the parish, situated on the shore of a bay of the same name in St. George's channel, six miles from Poor Head, and consists of a scattered village comprising about 150 small houses: it is much frequented in the summer for sea-bathing. At the entrance of the bay are two isles called the Ballycotton islands, situated five miles (w. by s.) from Capell or Cable Island, and about one mile from the main land. This is one of the five stations of the coast-guard that are comprised within the district of Youghal. A new district church for the accommodation of the inhabitants of Ballycotton and Churchtown was built not far from the village, in 1835, at an expense of £330, raised by subscription.The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Bishop; and the curate's stipend is paid partly by the dean and chapter and the vicars choral of the cathedral church of Cloyne, to whom the tithes of the parish belong, and partly by the precentor, as rector of Churchtown. The male and female parochial schools for Ballycotton, Churchtown, and Kilmahon are situated at Ballybraher.
THE PARISH VILLAGE OF
KILMAHON or SHANAGARRY
as described in
Lewis's Topographical Dictionary of Ireland, 1837
KILMAHON, a parish, in the barony of IMOKILLY, county of CORK, and province of MUNSTER, 4 miles (S. E.) from Cloyne, on the southern coast; containing 1658 inhabitants. It comprises 2468 statute acres, as applotted under the tithe act, and valued at 1689 per annum. The land is generally rich and well cultivated, and a beautiful vale extends from the coast up to Cloyne; but near Ballycotton, during easterly winds, the sea beats over the strand with great fury. The valley rests on a substratum of limestone, which rises to the surface at Moanagarra, where a small quarry is worked: the higher grounds are based on clay-slate. The principal seats are Snugborough, the residence of T. G. Durden, Esq.; Shanagary House, of T. J. Keane, Esq.; Ballybane, of T. Gaggin, Esq.; and the glebe-house, of the Rev. B. Henzell, in the pleasure grounds of which are some fine verbenas and other exotic plants.
The living is a rectory and vicarage, in the diocese of Cloyne, and in the patronage of the Bishop: the tithes amount to £506. 18. 6. . The glebe-house was built by aid of a gift of £210 from the late Board of First Fruits, in 1805: the glebe comprises 12a. 1r. 21p. The church, which is a remarkably neat edifice, was built in 1800: the Ecclesiastical Commissioners have lately granted £147 for its repair. In the R. C. divisions the parish forms part of the union or district of Cloyne, and has a small plain chapel at Shanagary. There are two private schools, in which about 100 children are educated. At Ballymaloe is a very curious old house, built by the Fitzgeralds, and forfeited in the war of 1641: it is now the property of Mr. Forster, and in the hall are two pairs of elks' horns of very large size, which were found on the estate in 1714. At Shanagary are the ruins of a castle, which was unsuccessfully defended by the Earl of Desmond against Queen Elizabeth's troops: it was held by the Irish in 1641, but was captured by Cromwell, by whose orders it was dismantled.
THE VILLAGE OFKILLEAGH, a post-town and parish, in the barony of IMOKILLY, county of CORK, and province of MUNSTER, 10 miles (W.) from Youghal and 114 (S. W. by S.) from Dublin, on the road from Cork to Youghal; containing 2785 inhabitants, of which number 698 are in the town. A nunnery is said to have been founded here in the 7th century by St. Abban, near the spot now occupied by the parish church. The town consists of one regular street, comprising 112 houses, and is neatly built; it is a constabulary police station, and has a sub-post-office to Cork, Youghal, and Castlemartyr. Fairs are held on June 1st and Nov. 1st, at which a great quantity of live stock is sold. A court is held for the manor of Inchiquin, the jurisdiction of which extends over the parishes of Killeagh, Ardagh, Dangandonovan, and Clonpriest. The water of the small river Dissour, which passes by the town, is in high repute for its bleaching properties; and near a bridge which crosses it is a boulting-mill. The parish comprises 5800 statute acres, as rated to the county cess, and valued at £4495. 3. 1. per annum, of which a small quantity is bog, about 400 acres are woodland, and the remainder is arable or pasture land of good quality and well cultivated. Sea-sand and sea-weed are used as manure, and there is abundance of limestone, brown-stone, and inferior slate. The principal seat is Ahadoe House, the residence of Sir Arthur de Capell Brooke, Bart., not more remarkable for its natural beauties than for its having remained in the same family more than 600 years, while nearly all the other estates in the South of Ireland have been confiscated. It was granted in 1172 to Philip de Capell, lineal ancestor of the present baronet, and is called by the peasantry "the Maiden Estate," to distinguish it from the numerous forfeited properties in its vicinity. From its elevated situation it commands beautiful views of the distant ocean, while the deep wood of Glenbower, which is one of the few remnants of the ancient forests, lies stretched below. This romantic glen, which is thought to be equal in beauty to the celebrated Wicklow Dargle, commences above the town of Killeagh and winds upwards for some miles till it is lost in the mountains. Its precipitous sides are richly wooded, and the Dissour, which runs through it, in winter dashes with the fury of a mountain torrent, fully justifying the name of Glaunbour, or "the Deafening Valley." The present house is about to be replaced by a castellated mansion, for which a site has been selected with great taste; and a fine new road, nearly a mile in length, through Glen-bower, has been opened by the present baronet. This road, which passes over a deep ravine by means of a neat iron bridge, commands some delightful views, among which are the magnificent prospect from the Warren Hill, the Bathing-house Glen, the Foxes' Rock, and the Upper Cascade. In the grounds is a nux vesicaria, or bladder nut tree, also an ancient sycamore of very large size. Drumdihey House is the seat of Roger Green Davis, Esq.; it consists of a centre and two wings, ornamented with Doric columns, and with a portico at the eastern end. This handsome mansion, which was completed in 1833, is near the summit of an eminence, from which a splendid prospect is obtained of the country extending to Youghal, with its fine bay, and of Capell Island. Here is also Mount Uniacke, the seat of Norman Uniacke, Esq. It is an ancient family mansion, situated among mountains which have been brought into cultivation, and is surrounded by a grove of fine trees, and commands extensive views of the sea and the vale of Imokilly.
as described in
Lewis's Topographical Dictionary of Ireland, 1837
GARRYVOE, or GARRYBOVE, a parish, in the barony of IMOKILLY, county of CORK, and province of MUNSTER, 4 miles (S. E. by S.) from Castlemartyr; containing 813 inhabitants. It comprises 1657 statute acres, as applotted under the tithe act, about three-fourths of which are under tillage, the remainder being pasture and furze brakes. The soil is generally poor, but is well manured with sea-weed and sand; the substratum is clay-slate. Being situated on the shore of the Atlantic, many of the inhabitants are engaged in fishing. The principal seat is Garryvoe Lodge, the residence of J. O'Neil, Esq. It is a vicarage, in the diocese of Cloyne, and forms part of the union of Kilcredan; the rectory is impropriate in A. Maun, Esq., M.D. The tithes amount to £232. 10. 10., of which £155. 0. 6 1/2. is payable to the impropriator, and £77. 10. 3 1/2. to the vicar. In the R. C. divisions it is part of the union or district of Ladiesbridge, or Ballymacoda. The parochial schools are supported by Capt. Hoare, Mrs. Fitzgerald, and the vicar; and there is a private school. The old church is in ruins, and near it is a small square tower, called Garryvoe Castle.
THE PARISH VILLAGE OF
as described in
Lewis's Topographical Dictionary of Ireland, 1837
The living is a rectory, in the diocese of Cloyne, and in the patronage of the Crown: the tithes amount to £974. 10. 6. The church is a plain building with a square tower, at the extremity of the town, for the erection of which a loan of £375 was granted by the late Board of First Fruits in 1811. There is a glebe-house, for the erection of which the Board, in 1809, gave £100 and lent £1000: the glebe comprises six acres. In the R. C. divisions this parish is the head of a union or district, comprising also the parishes of Dangandonovan and Ardagh, and part of Clonpriest; and containing two chapels, one at Killeagh, and the other at Inch, in Ardagh. There are two public schools, in which about 80 children are taught, and for one of which Sir A. de Capell Brooke has erected a handsome school-house; and three private schools, in which are about 70 children; also a Sunday school and a dispensary. A castle, said to have been built by the Carews, formerly existed here, which was charged, in 1364, with an annuity to William Skiddy, mayor of Cork. Here is a rock of red clay formation, rising like a pyramid, and nearly covered with moss and plants; and there are some extraordinary subterranean caverns, which were explored in 1826 by Sir. A. de Capell Brooke.
THE PARISH VILLAGE OF
KILMACDONOUGH OR BALLYMACODA OR SHANAGARRY
as described in
Lewis's Topographical Dictionary of Ireland, 1837
KILMACDONOUGH, a parish, in the barony of IMOKILLY, county of CORK, and province of MUNSTER, 3 3/4 miles (S. W.) from Youghal; containing 3446 inhabitants. It forms a peninsula on the south-western side of Youghal bay, and comprises 6065 statute acres, as applotted under the tithe act, and valued at £5653 per annum. Its general aspect is hilly and the coast bold and rocky. At the extremity is Ring Point, about half a mile from which is Capell Island, which is separately described. The small village of Ballymacoda is situated about a mile from the coast, on an inlet of the bay, from which at low water a great quantity of sand is obtained. In the parish are a coast-guard station, a signal tower, and a dispensary. The principal seats are Ballykinnelly, the residence of Capt. Fitzgerald, R.N., which was formerly a religious establishment; Ring, of J. McCarthy, Esq.; and Greenland, of G. Gaggin, Esq. It. is a vicarage, in the diocese of Cloyne, forming part of the union of Kilcredan: the rectory forms the corps of the prebend of Kilmacdonough in the cathedral of Cloyne. The tithes amount to £1012. 15., of which £675. 3. 4. is payable to the prebendary, and the remainder to the vicar. In the R. C. divisions it is the head of a union or district, called Ballymacoda, which includes the parishes of Kilmacdonough, Kilcredan, Ightermurragh, Bohillane, and Kilmahon, and contains chapels at Ballymacoda, Lady's-Bridge, and Shanagary. About 40 children are educated in a school aided by the parish priest, and about 50 in a private school; there is also a Sunday school supported by the rector. Here are the ruins of Ballymacoda castle, which is said to have been built by Thomas Fitzgerald in 1521; and of the old church. THE VILLAGE OF
as described in
Lewis's Topographical Dictionary of Ireland, 1837
LADIES'-BRIDGE, a village, in the parish of IGHTERMURRAGH, barony of IMOKILLY, county of CORK, and province of MUNSTER, 1 1/2 mile (S.) from Castle-Martyr, on the road to Ballycotton; containing 41 houses and 231 inhabitants. Here is the R. C. chapel for the union or district of Ightermurragh, Garryvoe, and Bohilane; near which is a male and female national school. THE VILLAGE OF
as described in
Lewis's Topographical Dictionary of Ireland, 1837
KILCREDAN, a parish, in the barony of IMOKILLY, county of CORK, and province of MUNSTER, 5 miles (S. E.) from Castlemartyr; containing 573 inhabitants. This parish, which is bounded on the south by the Atlantic Ocean, comprises 1008 statute acres, as applotted under the tithe act. The northern part is very hilly and the soil shallow, resting on a substratum of clay-slate; but from its immediate vicinity to the sea, whence abundance of sea-weed and sand are procured for manure, it is rendered tolerably productive. In other parts the land is of good quality, and in an excellent state of cultivation, and at Ballycrenan considerable improvements in agriculture are in progress; about three-fourths of the land are in tillage, and the remainder in grazing farms, with some rough mountain pasture. From its situation about midway between Cable island and Ballycotton bay, and from its fine beach of sand extending in a bold semicircular sweep for nearly four miles, this place is much resorted to for sea-bathing.
At Ballycrenan is a coast-guard station belonging to the district of Youghal. The living is a vicarage, in the diocese of Cloyne, episcopally united to those of Kilmacdonough and Garryvoe, forming the union of Kilcredan, in the patronage of the Crown; the rectory forms part of the union of Lisgold and corps of the precentorship in the cathedral of Cloyne. The tithes amount to £120, of which £80 is payable to the precentor, and £40 to the vicar; and the aggregate tithes of the union amount to £455. 1. 11 1/2. The church, erected in 1636, is about to be rebuilt; it contains some monuments to the Tynte family, formerly proprietors of the castle. There is no glebe-house; the glebe comprises 11 1/2 acres. In the R. C. divisions this parish forms part of the union or district of Ladies-bridge. The parochial male and female schools, in which are about 20 children, are supported by Captain Hoare (who gives the house rent-free), Mrs. B. Fitzgerald, and the vicar; and there is a private school of about 20 children. The fine ruins of Ballycrenan castle occupy an eminence at a short distance from the coast, commanding an interesting view of the sea and the beautiful bay of Ballycotton: this castle was built by the Carew family early in the 15th century, and was destroyed in 1641; it was afterwards restored, and occupied till 1798; the Wallis family, who purchased it soon after the abdication of Jas. II., were the last occupiers.
THE VILLAGE OF
as described in
Lewis's Topographical Dictionary of Ireland, 1837
BALLINACURRA, a village, in the parish of MIDLE-TON, barony of IMOKILLY, county of CORK, and province of MUNSTER, 1 mile (S.) from Midleton; containing 527 inhabitants. This place is pleasantly situated on the banks of the Midleton river, and contains 144 houses. It is well situated for trade; and several large grain stores and malt-houses have been recently built, and some excellent quays have been constructed. A bridge has been thrown across the creek, over which passes the road to Rostellan; and several other improvements are in contemplation. A considerable trade is carried on in the exportation of grain, which is chiefly sent to Liverpool, Bristol, and London; and in the importation of coal, timber, iron, slate, and other heavy goods for the supply of the flourishing town of Midleton, to which place the navigation might be extended at a small expense. Limestone is very abundant throughout the neighbourhood, and great quantities are quarried for building, and burnt for agricultural purposes. The harbour communicates with that of Cove by a passage called the East Ferry; the tide rises here from eight to twelve feet, and brigs of 300 tons burden can safely sail up to the quay. There are in the neighbourhood several handsome houses, occupied by wealthy individuals: and nearly adjoining the vijlage are the ruins of the ancient parish church.--See MIDLETON.
THE VILLAGE OF
as described in
Lewis's Topographical Dictionary of Ireland, 1837
BOHILLANE, or BOHOLANE, a parish, in the barony of IMOKILLY, county of CORK, and province of MUNSTER, 2 3/4 miles (E.) from Cloyne; containing 487 inhabitants. It is situated on the road from Ballycotton to Castlemartyr, and comprises 1848 statute acres, as applotted under the tithe act, and valued at £959 per annum. The land in general is tolerably good, and the greater part is under an improved system of tillage: in some places the soil is light, and rests on a substratum of clay-slate; in others, stiff and compact, occasionally abounding with springs; and in some, loose and shivery, absorbing great quantities of moisture. The living is a rectory, in the diocese of Cloyne, and in the patronage of the Bishop: the tithes amount to £191. 10. 3 1/2. There is no church; the Protestant inhabitants resort for divine service either to Itermorrough or Cloyne. The ruins of the old church form a picturesque object: near them is a glebe of 12a. 2r. 36p., but there is no glebe-house. In the R. C. divisions this parish forms part of the union or district of Ballymacoda in Kilmacdonough. THE VILLAGE OF
as described in
Lewis's Topographical Dictionary of Ireland, 1837
CAHIRULTAN, a parish, in the barony of IMOKILLY, county of CORK, and province of MUNSTER, contiguous to the town and within the demesne of Castlemartyr. This parish, at a very early period, belonged to the Knights Templars, and subsequently to the Knights Hospitallers; it afterwards merged into the parish of Ballyoughtera, and both appear to have formed the ancient parish of Ballymartyr. It is a rectory, in the diocese of Cloyne, united by an act of the 9th of Anne, cap. 12, with Ballymartyr and Mogeely or Imogeely, under the name of Castlemartyr, and constituting the corps of the prebend of Cahirultan in the cathedral church of St. Colman, Cloyne, in the patronage of the Bishop: the tithes for the whole amount to £435. 12. 7 ½. The ruins of the old church are in the park of Castlemartyr. The glebe-house and glebe are in the parish of Imogeely; the glebe of the union comprises 22a. 3r. In the R. C. divisions it forms part of the union of Imogeely, or Castlemartyr. THE VILLAGE OF
as described in
Lewis's Topographical Dictionary of Ireland, 1837
CASTLEMARTYR, a post-town (formerly a parliamentary borough), partly in the parishes of ITERMORROUGH, BALLYOUGHTERA, and MOGEELY, barony of IMOKILLY, county of CORK, and province of MUNSTER, 19 miles (E. by N.) from Cork, and 127 (S. W. by S.) from Dublin; containing 830 inhabitants. This place is situated on the road from Youghal to Midleton, and on the mail coach road from Dublin, by Waterford to Cork; it appears to have risen into importance at a very early period. At the time of the English invasion, the castle, then called the castle of Imokilly, was resolutely defended by one of the Geraldines; but the English at length reduced it and kept in it a powerful garrison, till 1196, when Donald McCarthy besieged and destroyed it by fire, burying the garrison in its ruins, and putting to death all who escaped from the flames, The castle was afterwards rebuilt and became a very important fortress, commanding the pass between Cork and Youghal, and was strongly fortified and garrisoned by the English. In 1575, this castle, then called the castle of Ballymartyr, was garrisoned by Fitzgerald, seneschal of Imokilly, but was attacked by the Lord-Deputy Sidney and his forces, aided by 200 of the citizens of Cork, who, after a protracted and vigorous defence, compelled the garrison to surrender, and Fitzgerald narrowly escaped by flight. In 1645 it was besieged by Lord Inchiquin, to whom it was given up on honourable terms; and during the whole period of the parliamentary war, the town was the scene of violence and depredation, and was frequently plundered and partially destroyed. In 1688 it was plundered by Lieut.-Gen. McCarthy and the Irish forces, on their retreat from Cork; and in 1690, after the battle of the Boyne and the surrender of Youghal, a detachment of 36 dragoons and 42 infantry of King William's forces charged a body of 300 Irish at this place; the cavalry pursued them to the castle, in which they took refuge, and being joined by the infantry, they compelled the fortress to surrender, and the garrison to march out without either horses or arms: in this skirmish the Irish lost 60 men killed and 16 prisoners. In 1691, after the surrender of Limerick, the Irish under Gen. McCarthy obtained possession of the town by stratagem, but were shortly after driven out by a party of the garrison from Youghal, since which time the castle has been in ruins.The town consists of one wide street, at one end of which is the demesne of the Earl of Shannon, and at the other a bridge, beyond which a cross road leads on the right to the villages on the sea coast, and on the left to Imogeely, Fermoy, and Tallow. On the right side of this cross road, which is lined with fine ash trees, some neat houses have been recently built, forming a suburb to the town. The total number of houses is 129, most of which are large and well built, and the whole being whitewashed gives the town a very cheerful appearance. The approach from Midleton is by a magnificent avenue of lofty elms, one mile in length, and terminating at the eastern gate of Lord Shannon's demesne. About two miles from the town are Ballynona flour-mills, the property of Mr. W. Jackson, who has a neat cottage residence adjoining; the mills are propelled by a mountain stream, and produce about 12,000 bags of flour annually. Fairs are held on the 2nd of May and October; a constabulary police force is stationed here; and petty sessions are held every alternate Wednesday.The inhabitants were incorporated by charter of Chas. II., dated July 28th, 1675, granted to Roger, Earl of Orrery, by which the castle and lands forming his estate were erected into a lordship, called the manor of Castlemartyr, with courts leet and baron, and a court of record with jurisdiction extending to £200, under a seneschal to be appointed by his lordship. The charter also granted that the castle, town, and lands of "Ballymartyr," part of the said manor, should be a free borough, under the designation of the "Borough and Town of Castlemartyr," and should extend into the county of Cork in every direction from the centre of the town, so as to comprise in the whole an area of 100 acres. The corporation was styled "The Portreeve, Bailiffs, and Burgesses," and consisted of a portreeve, two bailiffs, and twelve burgesses, who had power to admit freemen at their discretion, and to send two members to the Irish parliament; the former privilege was never exercised, nor have the limits of the borough been defined. The portreeve and bailiffs are annually elected on the Monday after St. John's day; and the burgesses, as vacancies occur, are chosen by the corporation. The portreeve has power to appoint a deputy; both are justices of the peace and coroners for the borough, during their year of office, and the portreeve for one year after. The corporation continued to return two members to the Irish parliament till the Union, when the borough was disfranchised, and the £15,000 awarded as compensation was paid to Richard, Earl of Shannon. The charter gave power to appoint a recorder and town-clerk, who were never appointed, and the only officer elected is a serjeant-at-mace, who also acts as a peace officer. A manorial court is held on the second Monday in every month, or oftener if required, by the seneschal, in which debts under £2 late currency are recoverable. The charter granted two weekly markets, but none are held; a market-house was erected in 1757, by the Hon. Henry Boyle, and a beam and scales are kept in it by the serjeant-at-mace, who receives small fees for weighing grain and other articles. There is a small bridewell belonging,to the borough, chiefly used for the temporary confinement of disorderly persons. The parish church of Ballyoughtera is situated on a gentle eminence on the north side of the town; the Ecclesiastical Commissioners have lately granted £225 for its repair. A dispensary has been established, and a fever hospital is entirely supported by the Earl of Shannon. Twelve almshouses were built for six aged men and six aged women of the borough, under a provision of the charter, authorising the lord of the manor to endow them with such lands as he might think proper. These almshouses are not kept up, and the Earl of Shannon, in lieu of them, allows £5 per annum each to 12 aged persons of the borough.Immediately adjoining the town is Castlemartyr, the seat of the Earl of Shannon, a spacious mansion erected by the Rt. Hon. Henry Boyle, Speaker of the Irish House of Commons. It is a substantial structure, consisting of a centre with a handsome portico and two extensive wings, and is situated in a demesne of 1000 acres tastefully laid out in lawns and shrubberies, embellished with woods of stately growth, diversified with some beautiful sheets of water, and intersected with numerous walks and rides commanding fine views of the richly varied and highly picturesque scenery with which the demesne abounds. Near the house is a large and beautiful lake, and there are two of smaller dimensions within the grounds; also two canals, over one of which is an elegant bridge. The shrubberies are exceedingly luxuriant, and the flower garden contains a great number of rare and hardy exotics, which, from the mildness of the climate, attain an extraordinary size. The ruins of the old castle of Imokilly, or Castlemartyr, the ancient seat of the Fitzgeralds, mantled with ivy to the very summit, and surrounded at the base with trees of stately growth, form a strikingly interesting feature in the landscape; and within the demesne are also the ruins of the ancient parish churches of Ballyoughtera and Cahirultan. The deer park is about two miles distant; it contains some of the finest timber in the country. In the neighbourhood are numerous other seats, among which are Dromadda, the residence of G. W. Courtenay, Esq.; Kilbree, of S. W. Adams, Esq.; Kilmountain, of J. Boles, Esq.; Carew's Wood, of the Rev. J. Leslie; Ballyhickaday, of Capt. Leach; Springfield, of the Rev. W. Boles; and Castletown, of Norman Uniacke, Esq. The ruins of the ancient castle shew it to have been a place of great strength, and from the variety of its architecture it appears to have been built at different times. Richard Alfred Millikin, a gentleman distinguished for his talents and benevolence, author of a poem called "The River side" and other productions, including the well-known song of the "Groves of Blarney," was born here in 1767. The Earl of Shannon enjoys the inferior title of Baron Boyle of Castlemartyr, in the peerage of Ireland.
THE VILLAGE OF
as described in
Lewis's Topographical Dictionary of Ireland, 1837 CLONPRIEST, a parish, in the barony of IMOKILLY, county of CORK, and province of MUNSTER, 2 1/2 miles (S. W.) from Youghal, on the road to Cork; containing 3417 inhabitants. It comprises 6935 statute acres, as applotted under the tithe act, and valued at £6334 per annum. A large portion of the land lies very low, but forms a valuable marsh, on which a great number of cattle are fed; and the remainder is in tillage, and produces excellent crops. Several of the farm-houses are handsomely and substantially built, and there is an extensive tract of bog, which affords abundance of fuel. A large quantity of butter is made here for the Cork market. There are some quarries of limestone and brown building stone, also a quarry of slate, of very indifferent quality. The tide comes up the Fanisk to Inchiquin Castle, admitting large boats and lighters. The living is a rectory, in the diocese of Cloyne, and in the patronage of the Crown: the tithes amount to £869. 2. 4 1/2., and the glebe comprises 30 acres. The church is a very old and inconvenient building, situated at one extremity of the parish, and inaccessible during a portion of the winter; it is in contemplation to erect another on a more eligible site. In the R. C. divisions the parish forms part of the union or district of Youghal; the chapel is at Gartrough or Yurtroe. There is a school, aided by an annual donation from Lord Ponsonby, in which about 140 children are instructed; also a private pay school, in which are about 80 children. On the bank of the river Fanisk are the ruins of Inchiquin Castle, now called Inchiquin Tower, consisting of a round tower 9 yards in diameter, of which the walls are more than 12 feet thick: it is the property of Lord Ponsonby, and was formerly the head of a barony called Inchicoigne; it is still the head of a manor, for which courts are held at Killeagh, in the adjoining parish of that name.
as described in
Lewis's Topographical Dictionary of Ireland, 1837
CORKBEG, a parish, in the barony of IMOKILLY, county of CORK, and province of MUNSTER, 5 miles (S. W.) from Cloyne; containing 2221 inhabitants. This parish is situated on the southern coast, at the entrance to Cork harbour, by which it is bounded on the west. In 1690, the fortress, erected in 1596, to protect the entrance to the harbour, was garrisoned for Jas. II., but his troops were driven out by the Earl of Marlborough, on the 21st of September, and this was the first strong hold he took in Ireland. After this it was suffered to fall into decay, the platform or gun batteries being all that now remains. The parish contains 3319 statute acres, as applotted under the tithe act, and 100 acres within the walls of Carlisle fort, which are uncultivated and nominally tithe-free. About three-fourths of the land are under tillage, and clover and green crops are grown in small quantities. The principal seats are Rochemount, the residence of J. W. Roche, Esq.; Trabolgan, of E. Roche, Esq., surrounded by a finely varied and well-planted demesne of 400 acres: the mansion has an extensive front facing the sea, and includes two conservatories containing a fine collection of exotics. On the north-west side of the parish, projecting into the harbour, is Corkbeg House, the elegant residence of R. U. Penrose Fitzgerald, Esq.; the lawn and shrubbery are connected by a narrow slip with the main land, where the remainder of the demesne, comprising 350 acres of some of the best cultivated land in the barony is situated. Carlisle fort and Roche's tower lighthouse are within the limits of the parish: the former, which is situated near the mouth of Cork harbour, is a large fortress, erected at a great expense soon after the entrance of the French fleet into Bantry bay, and was garrisoned till 1828; the barrack will accommodate 7 officers and 155 artillery men, but is at present occupied only by a master-gunner and six men. Roche's tower lighthouse, which was rebuilt in 1835, is on the eastern side of the entrance to the harbour, and occupies the site of an old castle, called Roche's tower: the lantern is elevated 139 feet above high water mark, and consists of 10 lamps giving a steady fixed light, which may be seen 14 nautical miles in clear weather. As seen from the harbour and from Cove, the light is bright, and from the sea it is a deep red. Large vessels entering the harbour at nearly low water should be careful to avoid the rocks called the Stags, which are on the east side of the entrance, and the harbour rock, which is within them, and bears N. N. W. 3/4 W. from Roche's tower nearly half a mile, and has 15 feet of water at low spring tides.
The living is a rectory and vicarage, in the diocese of Cloyne, and was formerly part of the union of Ahada, but, on the death of Dr. Brinkley, in 1835, who held it as Bishop of Cloyne, the union was dissolved, and it now forms a separate living, in the gift of the Crown. The tithes amount to £517. 12. 3. The glebe comprises 22 acres, and it is intended to erect a glebe-house. The old church of this parish being in ruins, a new one will be built at the same time partly by private subscriptions, and partly by an expected grant from the Ecclesiastical Commissioners. In the R. C. divisions this parish is part of the district of Ahada. The parochial school for boys is in the village of Whitegate: it was built and endowed in 1831, by Col. Fitzgerald. The female and infants' schools are altogether supported by Mrs. Blakeney Fitzgerald. A free school was founded in 1818 by the late John Roche, Esq., who endowed it with £10 per annum: it is now under the National Board. There are also two private schools. The number of children receiving education in 1835, was 179. The ruins of the old church, which is supposed to have been built in 1587, are in the midst of a large wood. On the north side of them is a mausoleum belonging to the family of Roche, of Trabolgan; and on the south-west side is a large enclosed space belonging to the ancient family of Fitzgerald. Between the lighthouse and Carlisle fort are the remains of Prince Rupert's tower; and near Corkbeg House are the ruins of the old castle, built by the Condons in 1369, and for a long period the residence of that family. In the middle of a large field at Finnure are extensive ruins, supposed to have belonged to a religious establishment.
THE MARKET TOWN OF
as described in
Lewis's Topographical Dictionary of Ireland, 1837
YOUGHAL, a sea-port, borough, and market-town, and a parish, in the barony of IMOKILLY, county of CORK, and province of MUNSTER, 29 miles (E.) from Cork, and 124 1/2 (S. W.) from Dublin; containing 11,327 inhabitants, of which number, 9608 are in the town. The place derived its name, signifying "a wooded place," from its situation at the base of a range of hills, which, at the period of its erection, was a dense forest. The town is of very remote antiquity, having so early as the year 1209 received from King John a charter of incorporation which is still preserved among the archives of Lismore Castle. In 1224, Maurice Fitz-Gerald founded a Franciscan monastery on the south side of the town, which was the first religious foundation of the order in Ireland. It is recorded that he originally intended the building for a castle, but that, in consequence of some harsh treatment which the workmen received from his eldest son, he changed his design and determined to devote it to religious uses: but, dying in 1257, it was completed in 1260 by his second son, Thomas, whose son, in 1263 or 1271, founded a Dominican monastery, called the Friary of St. Mary of Thanks. At this time the town had attained some commercial eminence, for in 1267 the amount of customs paid was £103. In 1317, Sir Roger Mortimer, who had been appointed Lord-Justice, landed here in Easter week with 38 knights, and in a short time compelled Edward Bruce to retreat from the neighbouring country and take refuge in Ulster; and in the year following, Alexander Bicknor, Archbishop of Dublin and Lord-Deputy of Ireland, also landed at this port. In 1579, the Earl of Desmond, on being proclaimed a traitor, led his forces to this place, plundered the town, and carried off the property of the inhabitants to his castles of Strancally and Lisfinry, in the county of Waterford, at that time occupied by the Spaniards. The Earl of Ormonde, receiving intelligence of this attack, sent a ship from Waterford with troops which entered the town, but, being overpowered by the forces of the seneschal of Imokilly, most of them were killed and the remainder escaped with difficulty to their ships. The mayor had before this perfidiously refused to receive an English garrison, promising to defend the place to the last extremity; but, having made no effort for that purpose, he was tried by a court martial, found guilty, and hanged before his own house. The devastation to which the town was subjected during this rebellion compelled the inhabitants to abandon it; but on the retreat of the insurgents in 1580, they were invited to return, and in order to inspire them with confidence a garrison of 300 foot was left for their defence. In 1582 the seneschal of Imokilly, with all the forces he could muster, came suddenly to Youghal and scaled the walls; the alarm however being given, he was repulsed by a portion of the garrison, with the loss of 50 of his men.
In the war of 1641 the town again became an important military station, and was defended against the insurgents by the Earl of Cork, at his own expense, with 1000 foot and 60 horse, in addition to which the townsmen maintained 15 companies without any other supply than what the earl might furnish. Sir Chas. Vavasour, with his regiment of 1000 men, came to their assistance in February 1642, and landed with some difficulty; soon after the earl held a session in the town, at which the principal insurgent leaders were indicted for high treason; this powerful nobleman died in the following year. In 1644 the native Irish were expelled from the town and their property was seized. In 1645 the place was besieged by Lord Castlehaven: although the town was in a very weak state of defence and the garrison small, the besiegers were several times repulsed and on the arrival of Lord Broghill with assistance, were compelled to abandon the enterprise. On the approach of Cromwell in 1649, the inhabitants embraced the cause of the parliament, and that general made Youghal his head-quarters till the spring; after the siege of Clonmel he returned and embarked here for England. By letters patent under the privy seal, dated Feb. 14th, 1660, their estates and franchises were restored to the inhabitants, being "innocent Papists", who had been deprived of them during Cromwell's usurpation. On the 2nd of August, 1690, after the reduction of Waterford, Youghal surrendered to a few dragoons of King William's army; and on the 9th the governor marched at the head of a small army to Castlemartyr, where he defeated a large number of the Irish, and seized the castle for the king's use. In 1696 the inhabitants manned a boat with 40 seamen and soldiers, and captured a French privateer which had put into the harbour to obtain supplies, and lay at anchor under Cable island. His late Majesty William IV., when Prince William Henry, visited Youghal as commander of the ship Pegasus, in 1787; and honoured the corporation with his company to dinner, on which occasion he was presented with the freedom of the borough.
The town is pleasantly situated on the western shore of the harbour to which it gives name, and which is enclosed between two bold eminences called Blackball Head and Knockvarry, leaving a channel of about half a mile in breadth for the confluent streams of the Toragh and the Blackwater, which discharge themselves into the bay. The Toragh is a boundary between Cork and Waterford for about two miles before it falls into the Blackwater, and then makes a bold sweep to the east and south, forming in appearance a fine lake, environed by an amphitheatre of verdant and gently sloping hills, which terminate abruptly on the south in the two bold eminences previously noticed. Knockvarry, rising immediately over the town, is in many places well planted. The principal street, from which diverge several smaller streets, is nearly a mile in length, and is divided by the clock gate into the north and south main-streets: the houses are irregularly built, but generally of respectable appearance, though occasionally intermixed with a few of the more ancient, which are in a ruinous and dilapidated state; the total number, in 1831, was 1249. The streets are pitched, but neither paved nor flagged; they are lighted with gas, and cleansed under the provisions of the act of the 9th of Geo. IV. The inhabitants are supplied with water from pumps erected in various parts; but the supply in dry seasons being deficient, and the water, from an admixture of sea water, being rendered unpalatable, it is in contemplation to bring water of a better quality to the houses by pipes from the extremities of the town, where there is an abundant supply. Within the last half century the town has extended itself in all directions; the ancient walls have been entirely removed, and a valuable piece of slab having been reclaimed by the corporation and their tenantry, Catherine-street, the Mall, and numerous extensive warehouses have been built on it. At the southern extremity of the town, near the old abbey, two ranges of spacious and handsome houses have been erected and an elegant and commodious hotel built by the Duke of Devonshire; on the west side of the town is Nelson-place; and a neat row of houses has been built on the east side. Most of the houses in the principal streets are either new or have been modernised; many of the ancient houses have been newly fronted, but may still be distinguished by their gable ends fronting the street, and their pointed doorways of stone. The town is much frequented during the summer for sea-bathing, for which it is well adapted, having a fine, smooth, and level strand extending nearly three miles along the western shore of the bay; but as a watering-place it is deficient in the accommodation of good lodgings, which might be easily supplied by the erection of marine villas and lodging-houses at the Cork entrance to the town, along the declivity of the hill, which would command a pleasing prospect of the bay, the strand, and Capell island. This would not only increase the number of visiters during the season, but induce many persons to take up their permanent abode in the town, which, among other advantages, enjoys the benefit of cheap and well supplied markets, salubrity of atmosphere, central situation, and excellent society.
The bridge over the Blackwater, a mile and a half north-east from the town, was erected in 1830, after a design of the late Alex. Nimmo, by George Nimmo, Esq., under the provisions of an act passed in 182S, which empowered certain commissioners to take ground and to erect a bridge from Foxhole, in the parish of St. Mary, Youghal, to the opposite shore, in the parish of Clashmore, county of Waterford. The expense of its erection, exclusively of £8509 paid to the corporation for the ferry, was £22,000, towards which Government advanced £10,000 as a loan: it was carried into execution by proprietary shareholders of £100 each, but the speculation has not renumerated them. This structure is built of Memel fir and is remarkably light and elegant: it is 1787 feet in length, including a drawbridge 40 feet long; its uniform breadth is 22 feet within the railings, which are 4 1/2 feet in height; and the whole is supported on 57 sets of piers of five pillars each. The gas-works, on the strand adjoining the northern entrance to the town, were built in 1830 under the provisions of the act of the 9th of Geo. IV.; the establishment is managed by 21 commissioners.
A public library was established in 1825 by a proprietary of 30 shareholders of 5 guineas, who also annually subscribe half a guinea each; the subscription for non-proprietors is a guinea, and it is open to strangers on introduction by a proprietor, on payment of half a crown monthly; the number of volumes is about 800, exclusive of a copy of Rees's Cyclopaedia, presented by the Duke of Devonshire. There are two public reading-rooms, one in the Mall-house and the other in the national school-rooms, both well furnished with English and Irish newspapers, periodicals, and works of reference. The Youghal Literary and Scientific Institution, for the diffusion of knowledge by lectures on subjects capable of practical illustration, was founded in 1833, and is supported by annual subscriptions of half a guinea each, which entitle the subscriber and his family to admission to the lectures: a library and museum are in course of formation. Balls and concerts are held during the summer season at the Mall-house. A savings' bank has been established, and a large and handsome building, in which the business is now conducted, was erected in 1831, the expense of which was defrayed from the accumulated surplus fund: the management is remarkably good and the deposits numerous. On an eminence north of the town are infantry barracks for the accommodation of 6 officers and 180 men.
The woollen, manufacture was formerly carried on here to a considerable extent, but has long since been discontinued; that of porcelain and fine delf was likewise carried on for a time: but the only manufactures at present are those of bricks, of which some of a very fine quality are sent coastwise to Cork; a coarse kind of pottery made for the use of the neighbourhood, and an extensive rope-manufacture. A large porter and ale brewery was established at the northern end of the town by Messrs. Deaves and Eustace, the machinery of which is of the most improved kind; a malting concern is connected with it. Messrs. Keays and Messrs. Ronayne have each establishments for the purchase and export of salmon in ice; the annual amount of export is valued at about £2500. At the north end of the town is a quarry of good clay-slate, used as building stone, which produces an abundant supply; it is the property of the corporation, who generously give it to the quarry men working it, by whom the produce is disposed of to great advantage. The trade of the port is very considerable, especially the coasting trade; it consists chiefly of the export of agricultural produce and the import of coal, culm, timber, Staffordshire ware, porter, and groceries for the supply of the neighbourhood. In 1835 there were sent from this port 156,653 barrels of oats, 12,827 of wheat, and 16,973 of barley, 13,123 sacks of flour, 832 barrels of rye, 8593 firkins and 419 kegs of butter, 641 sacks of biscuit, 2190 bales of bacon, 6429 live pigs, 866 head of cattle, 434 sheep, 40 hogsheads of lard, 613 gallons of whiskey, and a large quantity of dried salmon. The number of vessels that cleared outwards was 420 with cargoes and 46 in ballast; and the number that entered inwards was 459 with cargoes of coal, culm, and timber, and 26 in ballast. The number of vessels registered as belonging to the port was 28, of the aggregate burden of 2998 tons, of which two were engaged in the foreign trade: the duties paid at the custom-house amounted to £561. 15. 2.
The harbour is safe and commodious, and at spring tides is accessible to vessels of 500 tons' burden; ships not drawing more than 12 feet of water may ride afloat off the town; but there is a bar across the entrance, extending about a mile to the south, on which are only five feet at low water, and thirteen feet at high water of neap tides; the sea is consequently rough when the wind blows on the shore or against the tide. The quays are extensive and commodious, and on one of them is the custom-house, a building well adapted to its purpose; but Youghal being only a creek to Cork, most of the large vessels discharge at the latter port. Here is a coast-guard station, consisting of one officer and nine men under a resident inspecting commander, forming the head of the district of Youghal, which comprises the subordinate stations of Helwick Head, Ardmore, Knockadoon, and Ballycotton. The market is daily, but the principal market is on Saturday, which is large and well supplied, particularly with fish, meat, and vegetables; and a fair is held on Ascension-day. There is a convenient market-place for butchers' meat and another for fish. A mail coach from Cork to Waterford passes through the town every evening, and another to the latter city is despatched every morning; besides which, there are several stage coaches every day to Cork.
The earliest charter to Youghal on record, exclusively of those of a temporary nature, is that of the 49th of Edw. III., directing that the dues hitherto paid at Cork for certain staple articles should henceforward be paid in the port of Youghal. Another charter of the 2nd of Edw. IV. granted to the sovereign and provosts the cognizance of pleas to any amount, both real and personal, and appointed the sovereign clerk of the market, with power to regulate the weights and measures and the assize of bread, also escheator and admiral of the port, which was made a petty limb of the cinque ports of Ireland. A charter of the 2nd of Rich. III. changed the titles of Sovereign and Provosts into those of Mayor and Bailiffs, and incorporated the town by the name of "the Mayor, Bailiffs, Burgesses and Commonalty of the Town of Youghal," with cognizance of all pleas real and personal, and a court of record every Friday, the freemen to be free of tolls throughout England and Ireland, and the corporation to have the customs and cocquet from the headland of Ardmore and Capell island to the island of Toureen. The charter of the 12th of Hen. VII. granted the corporation a ferry at Youghal and a mease of herrings from every fishing boat. That of the 7th of Jas. I., which is considered to be the governing charter, after confirming all the privileges in former grants, and licensing two weekly markets and two fairs, granted a corporation of the staple, as in Dublin, the retiring mayor and bailiffs to be mayor and constables of the staple for the ensuing year; the mayor, deputy mayor, recorder, and bailiffs to be justices of the peace and of oyer and terminer for the borough, and for the county of Cork; and licensed the mayor to have a sword borne before him. The charter granted by Jas. II., in the fourth year of his reign, is not considered valid. The borough appears to have exercised the elective franchise by prescription, as, though no notice of that privilege appears in any of its charters, it continued to send two members to the Irish parliament from the year 1374 till the Union, since which period it has returned one member to the imperial parliament; the right of election was vested solely in the members of the corporation and the freemen, whether resident or not; but by the act of the 2nd of Wm. IV., cap. 88, it has been granted to the £10 householders, and the non-resident freemen have been disfranchised. A new boundary has been drawn round the town, including an area of 212 statute acres, the limits of which are minutely detailed in the appendix. The number of electors registered up to the beginning of 1836 was 333: the mayor is the returning officer. The mayor is elected from among the burgesses annually; the bailiffs are elected annually at the same court out of the freemen; the aldermen are those burgesses who have been mayors; the burgesses, those freemen who have been bailiffs: the number of each class is unlimited: the freemen are chosen at the court of D'Oyer Hundred, but must be proposed by the mayor; no qualification on the part of the candidate is required. The court of D'Oyer Hundred is an assemblage of all the members of the corporation, and exercises the right of admitting freemen, disposing of the corporation property, and performing all other corporate acts except the election of officers. There is a class of freemen, called freemen of trade, arising from a power given to the corporation to license foreigners to trade in the town, but they exercise no political functions. The recorder is elected for life at a special meeting of the corporate body, called a court of election. The court of quarter sessions, held by the mayor, bailiffs and recorder, has jurisdiction in all cases, but confines its proceedings to larcenies and misdemeanours punishable by fine and imprisonment. The court of pleas or record, held before the mayor and bailiffs, or one of them, assisted in special cases by the recorder, takes cognizance of pleas to any amount. The police consists of a chief constable (who is also sword-bearer), and 8 constables: a party of the county police is stationed in the town, under the control of the mayor. The property of the corporation consists of lands and tenements, yielding about £900 per ann.; of tolls and customs, producing an uncertain amount; and of an annuity from the commissioners of the Blackwater bridge, being the interest on £8500, the purchase money of the ferry. The Mall-house, in which the borough courts are held and the public business of the corporation is transacted, is a handsome structure, built by the corporation in 1779, on a site reclaimed from the slab: it contains, besides the court-rooms, an assembly-room, a reading-room, and the Mayor's offices: adjoining it is an agreeable promenade. The borough gaol is a lofty square building of four stories, called the Dockgate, surmounted by a lantern and cupola containing the town clock; it was rebuilt in 1777, but is defective in several of the accommodations essential to the health of the prisoners and the proper regulation of the place.
The parish comprises 9000 acres, as applotted under the tithe act: the surface is exceedingly undulating, and the lands are mostly under cultivation or planted; the substratum is clay-slate, the soil light but productive, and the system of agriculture is rapidly improving: there is a small portion of waste land, which is chiefly composed of marsh and turbary, comprising about 400 acres; it is being reclaimed and brought into cultivation. The surrounding scenery is varied, bold, and interesting, and is embellished with numerous gentlemen's seats and flourishing plantations. Among these are Myrtle Grove, built in 1586 by Sir Walter Raleigh, and for some time the residence of that distinguished person, since whose death it has experienced but little alteration: it is the property of the representatives of the late Walter Hayman, Esq., and is now inhabited by Col. Faunt. The house is situated in a secluded spot near the church, and, with the exception of some of the windows which have been modernised, preserves its antique character of pointed gables and spacious chimneys, and is considered a perfect specimen of the Elizabethan style of architecture. The drawing-room is panelled with polished oak superbly carved; the mantel piece is an elaborate and exquisite specimen of carved work in the richest designs, the lower cornice resting upon three beautiful figures representing Faith, Hope, and Charity, and the whole embellished with a profusion of richly carved figures and emblematical devices. In removing the panelling of one of the rooms, some years since, an aperture in the wall was discovered in which were found several old books; one bound in oak, and printed at Mantua in 1479, consisted of two parts, one in black letter, a history of the Bible, with coloured initials; the other an ecclesiastical history by John Schallus, professor of physic at Hernfield, dedicated to Prince Gonzales; it is now in the possession of Mathew Hayman, Esq., of this town. The demesne of Myrtle Grove was remarkable for the luxuriant growth of myrtles, bays, the arbutus and other exotics in the open air, but all the largest myrtles have been cut down by the present tenant. On a hill above the town the potatoe, brought by Sir W. Raleigh from America, was planted; but from an erroneous opinion that the apple which grew on the stalk was the sole produce of the plant, it was gathered and rejected; and it was not till some time after, when the ground was dug for another crop, that the potatoes were discovered and the value of the plant appreciated: from these few plants the whole country was in course of time stocked. College House, the property of the Duke of Devonshire, is a handsome modern edifice, the ancient house built in 1464, having been taken down; it is a quadrilateral building with a circular tower at each angle; in the great hall is preserved one of the ancient mantel-pieces of the old house, of the same character but not of such elaborate workmanship as that at Myrtle Grove; the grounds are ornamented with myrtles, bay-trees, and the arbutus. The other gentlemen's residences are Green Park, that of Capt. H. Parker, R. N.; Clifton, of Sir Wm. Homan, Bart.; Bellevue, of J. Power, Esq.; Nelson Hill, of Mrs. Green; Muckridge, of Wm. Fitzgerald, Esq.; Brooklodge, of Mrs. Marsden; Healthfield, of Capt. Cotter; Rockville, of Thos. Fuge, Esq.; and the Cottage, of Thos. Seward, Esq.; besides numerous large and handsome houses in the town.
The living is a rectory, formerly annexed to the Wardenship of the College of St. Mary, Youghal, as united in perpetuity to the see of Cloyne, by act of council in 1639, but separated from it by an act obtained by the late Dr. Brinkley; it now forms a distinct living, but the wardenship is still annexed to the bishoprick, and the Bishop is patron of the rectory. The tithes amount to £521. 3. 3. The collegiate establishment was founded in 1464, by Thomas, Earl of Desmond, and consisted of a warden, eight fellows, and eight singing men: it was endowed with the parsonages of Aghem, Moyallow, Newtown, and Oletion, to which were subsequently added those of Ardagh, Clonpriest, Garrivoe, Ightermurragh, Kilcredan, and Killeagh, and the vicarage of Kilmacdonough, in the diocese of Cloyne, and four others in that of Ardfert, of all which the duties were performed by the warden and fellows. The collegiate church was a magnificent structure in the enriched Gothic style of architecture, with a lofty tower on the north side: it consisted of a nave, choir, transepts, and north and south aisles; the nave and aisles have been fitted up for the parish church: the chancel or choir is a splendid ruin, the north transept is used as a vestry, and the south contains some ancient monuments of the founder, and also of the Earls of Cork and other branches of that family; the latter transept is considered the private property of the Duke of Devonshire; it is much neglected and fast going to decay. The edifice is remarkably handsome and contains a throne for the bishop, as Warden of Youghal, and a state pew for the corporation. Near the south end of the town is a chapel of ease, a neat plain building, erected in 1817 on the cemetery of the ancient Dominican friary, at an expense of £1200, of which £900 was a gift from the late Board of First Fruits and £300 was raised by subscription. The R. C. district comprises the whole of the parishes of St. Mary Youghal and Clonpriest: the chapel is a handsome structure, 100 feet in length and 50 in breadth, built by subscription, aided by a donation of £700 from Dr. Coppinger, late R. C. bishop of Cloyne, under whose patronage it was erected; above the altar is a fine painting of the Crucifixion, brought from Lisbon. At the south entrance of the town a handsome convent for nuns of the Presentation order has been erected, towards the expense of which £2000 was received from Miss Gould, of Doneraile; attached to it are a small chapel and the female national schools. There are also places of worship for the Society of Friends, Independents, and Primitive and Wesleyan Methodists.
There are 19 schools in the parish, affording instruction to 1785 children. Of these, the male and female general free schools are supported by subscription and collections after annual sermons in the churches; the master and mistress have each a residence. The Youghal united schools are upon a novel but very interesting plan; they are self-supporting institutions, managed by a committee, and the children obtain a good English education. The national school is supported by an annual grant of £30 from the Board of Education and collections at the R. C. chapel; it is attended by 527 boys, who are instructed in reading, writing, arithmetic, book-keeping, and the mathematics by four monks of the Augustinian order, being a filiation of the parent house (the Presentation monastery, Cork), and one lay brother. The convent school, in which are 600 girls, is conducted by the ladies of the convent; and an infants' school is supported by subscription among Protestants. The ancient school, founded by the Earl of Cork in 1634, has an endowment of £30 per annum, paid by the Duke of Devonshire, and affords instruction to 18 boys; the master has a house and some excellent land. The remainder are private boarding and day schools, and are wholly supported by the pupils. The Earl of Cork's alms-houses for poor widows, founded in 1634, adjoin the free school; they have been recently rebuilt in their original style, with the arms of the founder in front; they contain apartments for six poor widows, who are supplied with fuel and receive £5 per annum from the Duke of Devonshire. The alms-houses founded by Mr. Ronayne have fallen into decay, there being no endowment for their maintenance. A Protestant almshouse was established in 1834 by subscription, in which are maintained 22 aged persons, who receive religious instruction every day from a minister of the Established Church; and there is a parochial poor establishment, in which 40 poor persons are supported chiefly by collections made in the church. The infirmary, fever-hospital, and dispensary are situated in a healthy and retired spot just without the town, and have the benefit of a resident medical attendant; they are under the direction of a committee of management, and are conducted with the strictest attention to economy and usefulness in every department. The lying-in hospital, established in 1824, is supported by donations and subscriptions, and affords relief also to patients at their own houses. A Ladies' Association for improving the condition of poor females, by affording employment in spinning, weaving, bleaching, dyeing, and hackling, was established in 1823, and is supported by subscription. The Tuscan plat institution, which grew out of the former, was commenced in 1829, under the patronage and personal direction of the lady of the Rev. H. Swanzy, who established a platting school for the instruction and subsequent employment of destitute females, whose moral improvement was to be promoted by a perusal of the Scriptures. This establishment affords employment to more than 30 females, and since its commencement has paid upwards of £800 to the most destitute class of society. John Perry, Esq., bequeathed a sum now producing £22 per annum; Dr. Hayes left £100, which has accumulated to £217, and now produces £13. 0. 4 3/4. per annum; John Spencer, in 1690, gave a rent-charge of £1; Mr. Cozens bequeathed a house, in 1783, which is now let for £18 per annum; Mr. John Rea, in 1795, bequeathed £100; Mr. W. Mannix, a rent-charge of £6; and Mr. Hobson, one of £3; producing altogether £66. 6. 10 3/4. per annum for distribution among the poor. Thomas Croker, in 1718, left a rent-charge of £4, the payment of which has been latterly discontinued.
The western gable and some of the eastern portions of the Dominican friary, at the north end of the town, still remain. The chancel of the collegiate church of St. Mary, now in ruins, affords a good specimen of its former magnificence; the east window of six lights is richly embellished with flowing tracery; on the north side of the altar is a canopied niche with crocketed finials of elegant design, in which was formerly a tomb, now removed, but there is still remaining the inscription, "Hic jacet Thomas Fleming:" on the south side of the altar is another ancient tomb. On the south side is a chapel, formerly called the chantry of our Blessed Saviour, which was purchased from the corporation by the first Earl of Cork, and contains the remains of that nobleman and of several of his family, to whose memory is a handsome altar-tomb, bearing his effigy recumbent under a splendid arch, with those of his two wives kneeling; on either side, and around, are the effigies of his children: over the monument is a large mural tablet of black marble, with the genealogy of the family; there is also the monument of the founder of the chapel, which having been defaced in the Desmond rebellion was restored by the Earl; and a splendid monument of white marble to the memory of Lord Broghill. The south transept or chapel, now used as a vestry, contains some ancient monuments, among which is one to the Uniacke family, with a cross fleury and inscription, both in relief, but much injured by exposure to the damp; it bears the date 1557. At the west entrance into the church are two monuments found, a few years since, in digging the foundations of the new buildings on the site of the ancient Franciscan monastery at the south end of the town, one bearing a male and the other a female effigy, supposed to be husband and wife, with an inscription in Norman French nearly obliterated: on the north side of the altar is a very chaste and beautiful monument of white marble, to the family of Smith, of Ballinatra. In the churchyard, which is one of the most spacious in the kingdom, are also many curious ancient monuments deserving of notice. Of the ancient walls little remains excepting on the western side of the town, where they are tolerably perfect, and one of the old round towers is remaining. The gates have all been removed, except the Water gate leading out to the quay, which is extremely dilapidated; and the Dock-gate, which has been recently rebuilt. In the north main street is Tynte's castle, which is in the style of those erected in the reign of Elizabeth; it was built by a powerful family of that name, from one of whom Smith relates that the Lord-President was obliged to seize £4000 for the supply of his army. At the north-eastern extremity of the parish, near the river Toragh, are the remains of the castle of Kilnatoragh, a noble structure formerly belonging to the great Earl of Desmond. Several of the ancient houses are still remaining in the town, some of them having the staircases in the walls, which are of extraordinary thickness: among them is one said to have been that of Coppinger, the mayor who was hanged before his own door, and also one in which Cromwell took up his residence during his stay here. A great quantity of silver coins was found here in 1830; the number could not be ascertained, but more than 400 oz. were sold as old silver in Cork; they were mostly pence and half groats of Edw. I., and also some halfpennies of the same reign. In 1818, several pieces of stamped pewter of the size of half-crowns and shillings were found near the walls, which had evidently been made and passed as money. Many remains of crosses, croziers, and other ornaments worn by the monks and friars have been found. On the old Cork road, near Mary Ville, the residence of Mr. Taylor, are the remains of an ancient Danish fort, which runs under ground nearly a mile. There are two chalybeate springs, one on the Spa road near the fever hospital, and the other at the quarry near the Waterford road, which are but seldom used. The Earl of Cork and Orrery, among his inferior titles in the peerage of Ireland, enjoys that of Baron Boyle, of Youghal.